I am a science and technology policy analyst at Ingenio (CSIC-UPV, València), visiting professor at the Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS) of Leiden University and associate faculty at SPRU (Univ. Sussex, Brighton), where I worked from 2004 to 2012. I am part of Ingenio's Evaluation and Medical Innovation groups. My research considers the role of S&T indicators in science policy, addressing some of the challenges posed in The Leiden Manifesto. In particular, I investigate how to make a more plural and inclusive use of S&T indicators for informing evaluation, funding and research strategies. My two main research topics are:

1) Inclusive metrics: The increasing use of indicators in research management and policy may undermine fields, regions or topics that a poorly covered or described by current research metrics. I study how indicators are biased and the potential effects of biases, for example in issues such as interdisciplinary research, local knowledge and agriculture (rice) or in some countries. I am also working mixed-methods to capture the societal contributions of research, e.g. in translational research.

2) Research portfolios: There is a growing perception of a misalignment between science ‘supply’ and societal ‘needs’. In order to facilitate deliberation on research prioritization, I am developing methods to interrogate the research landscapes or portfolios for grand challenges such as bird flu or obesity, the knowledge base of funding agencies and organisations such as universities or pharmaceutical firms.

I have also worked on the characterization of nanotechnology, global science mapping and measures of interdisciplinary research.

My publications are available via green open access, in Google Scholar's profile or in this publication list. Full CV

I serve as Editorial Advisor in the journals Research EvaluationScientometrics and Journal of Informetrics, and participate in the conference committees of science policy conferences such as Atlanta Science Policy, ENID or Eu-SPRI. I have led projects for the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC, ~€0.5M), US National Science Foundation (with A. Porter, ~$800k), and have been awarded the fellowships Marie Curie (EC, IntraEuropean, 2006-08, and Integration, 2013-2017), Ramón y Cajal (Spain, 2012-2017) and Monbukagakusho (Japan, 1995-2001).  

I have conducted consultancies for Technopolis (EC project on Monitoring of Responsible Research and Innovation), the UK’s Royal Commission on Environmental Protection (Nanomaterials governance), SRI (Measuring interdisciplinarity), the OECD Working Party of Nanotechnologies (Mapping the knowledge base) and JETRO (Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, METI; Policies for biotechnology in Europe).

I received an MSc in Science and Technology Policy from SPRU (Sussex), a BSc in Physics from the Univ. Barcelona, a PhD in biophysics from Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and was a postdoc in nanobiotechnology at Cornell University in 2001. In between academic positions, I have worked on international cooperation in Oxfam (1994) and the City Council of Barcelona (2003-04).



  1. Tommaso Ciarli, Ismael Ràfols
    Research Policy,
    Vol: 48 - pags 949 - 967
  2. Frédérique Bone, Michael M. Hopkins, Ismael Ràfols, Jordi Molas-Gallart, Puay Tang, Gail Davey, Antony M. Carr
    SPRU Working Paper Series,
    Vol: - pags 1 - 31


  1. Nicolás Robinson-García, Thed N van Leeuwen, Ismael Ràfols
    Science and Public Policy,
    Vol: 45 - pags 815 - 826
  2. Jordi Molas-Gallart, Ismael Ràfols
    BiD: textos universitaris de biblioteconomia i documentació,
    Vol: - pags 1 - 8
  3. Matthew L.Wallace, Ismael Ràfols
    Research Policy,
    Vol: 47 - pags 1 975 - 1 989
  4. Diego Chavarro, Ismael Rafols, Puay Tang
    Research Evaluation,
    Vol: - pags -
  5. Ismael Ràfols, Llorenç Arguimbau
    BiD: textos universitaris de biblioteconomia i documentació,
    Vol: - pags 1 - 4


  1. Stephen Carley, Alan L. Porter, Ismael Rafols, Loet Leydesdorff
    Journal of Data and Information Science,
    Vol: 2 - pags 68 - 111
  2. Lorenzo Cassi, Agénor Lahatte, Ismael Rafols, Pierre Sautier, Élisabeth de Turckheim
    Journal of Informetrics,
    Vol: 11 - pags 1 095 - 1 113
  3. Diego Chavarro, Puay Tang, Ismael Rafols
    Research Policy,
    Vol: 46 - pags 1 666 - 1 680
  4. Daniele Rotolo, Ismael Rafols, Michael M Hopkins, Loet Leydesdorff
    Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology,
    Vol: 68 - pags 214 - 233


  1. Jordi Molas-Gallart, Pablo D’Este, Oscar Llopis, Ismael Rafols
    Research Evaluation,
    Vol: 25 - pags 235 - 243


  1. Diana Hicks, Paul Wouters, Ludo Waltman, Sarah de Rijcke & Ismael Rafols
    Vol: 520 - pags 429 - 431
  2. Matthew L. Wallace and Ismael Rafols
    Vol: 53 - pags 89 - 115


  1. Rafols, I.; Hopkins, M.M.; Hoekman, J.; Siepel, J.; O'Hare, A.; Perianes-Rodríguez, A.; Nightingale, P.
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change,
    Vol: 81 - pags 22 - 38
  2. Diego Chavarro, Puay Tang, and Ismael Rafols
    Research Evaluation,
    Vol: 23 - pags 195 - 209
  3. Jordi Molas-Gallart, Ismael Rafols, Puay Tang
    Journal of Science Policy and Research Management,
    Vol: 29 - pags 69 - 89


  1. Rafols, I., Leydesdorff, L., O’Hare, A., Nightingale, P. and Stirling, A.
    Research Policy,
    Vol: - pags -
  1.   Fiction Lagging Behind Or Non-Fiction Defending The Indefensible? University-Industry (et al.) Interaction In Science Fiction
    Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro, Laura González-Salmerón, Pedro Marques
  2.   Indicadores de género desde una perspectiva de responsabilidad social en la ciencia y la innovación: el caso español.
    Paula Otero-Hermida
  3.   Innovation from science: the role of network content and legitimacy ties
    Pablo D’Este, Óscar Llopis, Maureen Mc Kelvey, Alfredo Yegros
  4.   Connections matter: the influence of network sparseness, network diversity and a tertius iungens orientation on innovation
    Óscar Llopis, Pablo D’Este, Adrián A. Díaz-Faes
  5.   Research & Innovation in Spain 2016
    Ana Fernández-Zubieta, Irene Ramos-Vielba
  6.   From brawn to brains: manufacturing-KIBS interdependency
    Dioni Elche, Davide Consoli, Mabel Sánchez-Barrioluengo
  7.   A Functional Review of Literature on Research Careers
    Richard Woolley, Carolina Cañibano, Jakob Tesch
  8.   Exploring connections between social innovation, grassroots processes and human development: an analysis of alternative food networks in the city of Valencia (Spain)
    Victoria Pellicer Sifres, Sergio Belda Miquel, Aurora López Fogués, Alejandra Boni Aristizábal
  9.   Challenging traditional logics of energy planning: a Capability Approach analysis of a Grassroots Innovation in the Ecuadorian Amazon
    María Ten Palomares
  10.   Regional Human Capital and University Orientation: A case study on Spain
    Mabel Sánchez-Barrioluengo, Davide Consoli
  11.   ‘Shaken, but not stirred’: six decades defining social innovation
    Mónica Edwards-Schachter, Matthew L. Wallace
  12.   Who do you care about? Scientists’ personality traits and perceived beneficiary impact
    Óscar Llopis, Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro
  13.   The impact of one of the most highly cited university patents: formalisation and localization
    Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro, David Barberá-Tomás, Mónica Edwards-Schachter
  14.   A Taxonomy of Multi-Industry Labour Force Skills
    Davide Consoli, Francesco Rentocchini
  15.   Agglomerations and firm performance: how does it work, who benefits and how much?
    Jose-Luis Hervas-Oliver, Francisca Sempere-Ripoll
  16.   Resolving tensions of research utilization: The value of a usability-based approach
    Paul Benneworth, Julia Olmos-Peñuela
  17.   Clusters and industrial districts: where is the literature going? Identifying emerging sub-fields of research
    Jose Luis Hervas Oliver, Gregorio Gonzalez and Pedro Caja
  18.   Explaining researchers’ readiness to incorporate external stimuli in their research agendas
    Julia Olmos Peñuela, Paul Benneworth, Elena Castro-Martínez
  19.   Acceso al conocimiento público universitario en España: patrones geográficos - Access to universities’ public knowledge in Spain: geographical patterns
    Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro
  20.   Examiner amendments to applications to the european patent office: Procedures, knowledge bases and country specificities
    Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro and Elena M. Tur
  21.   Access to universities’ public knowledge: Who’s more regionalist?
    Manuel Acosta, Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro, Daniel Coronado
  22.   SMEs and Barriers to Eco-Innovation in EU: A Diverse Palette of Greens
    Giovanni Marin, Alberto Marzucchi, Roberto Zoboli
  23.   Towards an alternative framework for the evaluation of translational research initiatives
    Jordi Molas-Gallart, Pablo D’Este, Óscar Llopis and Ismael Rafols
  24.   Connections Matter: How Personal Network Structure Influences Biomedical Scientists’ Engagement in Medical Innovation
    Oscar Llopis, Pablo D’Este
  25.   An analysis of the knowledge base of Scientific Research & Development Business Services
    Davide Consoli, Dioni Elche
  26.   That was then, this is now: Skills and Routinization in the 2000s
    Davide Consoli, Francesco Vona, Francesco Rentocchini
  27.   Modes d'intercanvi en el món acadèmic de la nano-tecnologia: una aproximació a la jerarquia en l’adquisició de recursos per mitjà de relacions socials
    Africa Villanueva-Felez, Rodrigo Martínez-Novo, Richard Woolley
  28.   Knowledge Flows and Public-Private Cooperation across National Contexts
    Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro, Davide Consoli
  29.   Conducting pro-social research: cognitive diversity, research excellence and awareness about the social impact of research
    Pablo D’Este, Oscar Llopis, Alfredo Yegros
  30.   Green investment strategies and export performance: A firm-level investigation
    Roberto Antonietti, Alberto Marzucchi