Entrepreneurship at universities involves a number of different means to carry out knowledge transfer towards industry and society. This means require the design and implementation of adequate technology transfer policies and incentives systems. If these policies are to be successful, its design has to take into account local contextual factors. We focus on technology transfer and academic spin-off in the context of Spanish universities. While Spanish university system is rather successful in scientific production, technology transfer to industry manifests room for improvement.
Universities interactions with industry and the broader society have gained prominence in the academic and policy discourse, and knowledge exchange (KE) activities of universities are increasingly supported via dedicated government funding, investment in infrastructure and incentives for academics and HEIs.This expanding KE agenda in policy and academia and recent announcements such as the introduction of the Knowledge Exchange Framework in the UK calls for a renewed discussion about what constitutes KE, what are adequate metric
Around four decades ago, David Collingridge put forward a dilemma that has been widely adoptedamongst the technology assessment (TA), and later, responsible research and innovation (RRI) communities. The so-called Collingridge dilemma has permeated discussions on the governance of science, technology and innovation, enclosing an enormous challenge: that of anticipating their potential consequences and controlling emerging technologies.
This study provides analytical evidence on the key governance mechanism of the development of wind energy sector in Spanish regionsover the period 1995-2012. It will focus on the extent to which research organizations, government and industry have engaged in a variety of regional pathways of industry emergence and reconversion. It will be shown that pathways of regional specialisation stem from the coordination of a wide mix of policy instruments and governance mechanisms.