This paper investigates the influence of country-specific factors on the degree of reliance on public knowledge among innovators. Using backward citations as our dependent variable we find that national characteristics indicative of the quality of the innovation system generally have a positive effect on knowledge flows. A national bias towards applied research and development (R&D) has a negative impact, but this is moderated by individual public-private cooperation.
This work applies the systemic approach to analyze the innovation process in an industrial district through the notion of the District Innovation System. We are particularly interested in the analysis of the interactions between the productive-technological and the scientific environments through the analysis of research contracts and patents. The empirical section of the paper develops a quantitative analysis of the interactions between different actors of the system included in the district.