New path creation to diversify the regional economy is acknowledged to be fun- damental processes to achieve sustainable regional development. However, despite the fact that new pathways are not created by disembodied economic forces, the role of the actors involved in new development paths, the so called actors of change, remains understudied. This papers contribute to fill this gap. It offers an analytical framework to characterize different processes of path creation depending on the features of the actors of change involved, and the roles they are playing.
Perceptions of temporality have a significant impact on the legitimacy of a nascent field. Expectations play a particular role in legitimation in such contexts; and studies explicate the multiple other types of temporalities that relate to change and persistence of institutions in more general terms. However, studies have yet to develop a coherent understanding on the varying ways by which temporality and legitimacy are intertwined in nascent fields.
In this work, we investigate the relationship between the scope and coherence of product basket of firms and their performance by employing an extensive database of Indian manufacturing firms with detailed information on product mix of firms. We show how the effects of the strategic choices of the firms are heterogeneous depending on the firm characteristics.
Over the last few months we developed a database based on patents to study the evolution of green technologies. In order to make parts of these data available to the general public, we want to create an interactive website that allows users to explore these technologies, where and when they have been developed. We are therefore organizing an informal seminar to gather input from people with prior experience with this type of data.
Thursday, 26 April 2018 - 12:00 to Friday, 27 April 2018 - 09:30
Rune Dahl Fitjar
University of Stavanger
This paper examines why firms sometimes collaborate locally rather than with higher-quality universities at a distance. Existing research has mostly relied on the localised knowledge spillover, or LKS, model to explain this. This model holds that knowledge transfer across distance is costly, and collaborating locally reduces the risk of information loss when the knowledge is transferred. However, there are various other reasons that could also explain the pattern. If the local university can make a useful contribution, firms might choose to look no further.
We conduct an exploratory study of industrial and academic actors’ use of and experiences with co-location projects in the context of university-industry interactions. We provide a conceptual framework of university-industry interactions that distinguishes co-location projects from collaboration at a distance, networking and market transactions. We define co-location projects as Research and development projects in which the parties from university and industry collaborate on one or more tasks and where all or a subset of the collaborative tasks are performed in the same physical space.
European Commission Joint Research Centre (Seville, Spain)
The presentation will cover the activities of targeted support that the JRC has been developing since 2014. These combine extensive fieldwork, action-oriented research, policy analysis and peer learning and are developed in close contact with selected partner regions, among the least developed of the EU. The activities have covered RIS3 key topics, such as EDP, governance, monitoring, synergies among funds
Academic entrepreneurship (AE) describes activities academics undertake in order to commercialize their research results regardless of who is the owner of the IP. For decades, the phenomenon of AE has been widely studied, both theoretically and empirically. While literature often focuses on novice or established academic entrepreneurs, we extend this scope and scrutinize the under-investigated transformation of Early-Stage-Researchers (ESR) to AE.
María José Sales & Natalia Reyes & Mª Angeles Avilés
El Col.lab es un programa dentro de “La Naves”, del Ayuntamiento de Valencia, para crear proyectos de innovación que aporten solución a las necesidades de la ciudad. Las iniciativas desarrolladas en este espacio se estructuran desde valores sociales, ambientales y financieros, que garantizan su sostenibilidad e impacto en el territorio.
En este contexto, Col.lab llega a INGENIO, para compartir experiencias enriquecedoras de proyectos innovadores que pretenden generar un impacto positivo en la ciudad.
Innovation Surveys have been the key source of information for studying innovation in a fairly systematic and comparative way; several studies have used these surveys to contribute to the literature on innovation studies. This paper seeks to contribute to the literature by analyzing the impact of public policy initiatives on innovation by firms, and the interplay with the geography of exports, differentiating their effects for manufacturing and service sectors in Canadian firms for the years 2009 and 2012.
In this paper Eiríkur Smári will attempt to use theories from virtue epistemology, in particular Miranda Fricker's theories of epistemic justice, to explore the concept of social (or societal) impact as it applies to the humanities. Shifting the focus from knowledge that is created and transferred to society to capacities that are developed in individuals and societies could and should have significant effects on how we approach the question of impact in the humanities (and beyond the humanities).
Does your location matter for your business? What aspects of location matter the most for businesses? How are locations assessed by monitoring and policy agencies? In this seminar, Dr. Mahroum runs a collective discussion of what make a place good for business and innovation and move on to introduce the 15 key attributes that make a place conducive for innovation and growth according to established scholarly work.
This paper aims at contributing to broadening the understanding of the role of institutions in the functioning of national innovation systems as reflected in the behavior of innovative firms. The theoretical starting point is the literature on national innovation systems with a premise that national institutions (and overall structure of production) matters in explaining the different rates and direction of knowledge accumulation between countries.
Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná - UNIOESTE
El seminario presentará el modelo del Parque Tecnológico Itaipú – Brasil y su relación con el territorio en el cual está instalado, contribuyendo con el proceso de desarrollo territorial de la Región Oeste do Paraná.
la ampliación de la misión institucional de la ITAIPU Binacional, que además de generar energía limpia e renovable, siendo actualmente la mayor generadora de energía hidroeléctrica del mundo, propuso contribuir con el desarrollo económico, social, tecnológico y del turismo sustentable en la región.
El objetivo general del seminario es exponer y discutir algunos planteamientos y resultados recientes sobre innovación, difusión y transferencia de conocimiento en dos sectores estratégicos: defensa y agroalimentación. En el primer trabajo, Manuel Acosta destacará algunos resultados preliminares sobre las causas explicativas de la transferencia mundial de conocimiento tecnológico militar utilizando las licencias de armas como indicador. En la segunda sesión Daniel Coronado detallará la forma de abordar el análisis de tecnologías de uso dual utilizando patentes y citas de patentes.
Many research and consultancy problems in science studies make necessary comparisons of research processes from different fields. This is a tricky task because some relevant properties of research processes (e.g. the time bacteria need to replicate, the predictability of successful measurement or the logical structure of mathematical knowledge) are not amenable to sociological analysis.
Esta presentación se centra en las fronteras entre disciplinas científicas y su situación en la edad moderna (siglos XVI y XVII), en que las distinciones eran completamente diferentes de las actuales. Las disciplinas involucradas en el estudio del mundo natural conformaban un mapa del conocimiento distinto en esta época. El término "ciencia" no tenía las implicaciones que tiene en la actualidad, en muchas ocasiones era irrelevante, y el término utilizado, scientia, incluía muchos aspectos del conocimiento y prácticas que nuestro propio concepto de ciencia ha descartado.
Frente a la idea más común de que el tomate, pese a llegar a Europa a principios del siglo XVI no formó parte de la dieta habitual hasta el siglo XIX, se tratará de cómo en la Europa mediterránea de finales del siglo XVI y principios del siglo XVII era usual cultivar y comer tomates. Concretamente de cómo en este periodo fue cuando los tomates se fueron convirtiendo en un cultivo muy extendido y en un producto habitual de las cocinas, llegando a ser en un ingrediente básico de la cultura alimentaria mediterránea.
Tulane University. Investigador visitante en INGENIO
Using documentation from the Inquisition Tribunals of Toledo and Cuenca, Mollmann examines cases of "medical hechicería" as a source for understanding cultural, intellectual, and social conflicts of the sixteenth century. This presentation draws particular attention to moriscos and the ways in which popular medicine was a point of inter-community exchange in the decades leading up to the expulsion of 1609.
Traditional editorial houses are nowadays confronted to the emergence of online diffusion of e-books. This phenomenon forces publishing houses to make their catalogue of printed books available also in a digital version. Nonetheless, not all the publishers are on the way for publishing in digital formats. More specifically, in recent years many small digital editorial houses (i.e. selling only e-books) are appearing on the market, but most of the traditional book publishers seem to be reluctant to make available their complete catalogue in digital formats.
El seminario se centrará en las cuestiones económicas, políticas y culturales que sitúan al sector vitivinícola español y portugués como estratégico en sus países dentro del contexto europeo y global, explorando sus transformaciones y desafíos. Por ejemplo, ¿qué se entiende por “tradición”, “calidad” y “diferenciación” en estos contextos y cuáles son sus consecuencias sectoriales y territoriales?, ¿qué relación existe entre demandas de consumidores, etiquetado y legislación del vino, y prácticas productivas?
En el seminario presentaremos los principales hallazgos del proyecto "Innovación social colectiva para la transición hacia modelos de desarrollo humano sostenible". El trabajo ha pretendido comprender los procesos de aprendizaje que se dan en iniciativas comunitarias de base (grassroots innovations) que están construyendo modelo alternativos de producción y consumo más allá del mercado y del Estado, así como su contribución al desarrollo humano sostenible.
An analytical framework aimed at explaining the dynamics of social or economic change - such as technological innovation – should also contain the necessary theoretical elements to explain processes associated with the absence of innovation. NOvation can be conceived as a type of dynamic socio-economic process, one triggered by specific attitudes and behaviors such as not-innovating, not-using, resisting or imitating.
Los servicios intensivos en conocimiento o Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) se caracterizan como importantes fuentes de conocimiento en la economía. El desarrollo de KIBS en décadas recientes puede ser visto como uno de los principales factores de transición de una economía de base industrial hacia una base basada en el conocimiento
Hace catorce años decidimos iniciar una aventura que era una auténtica locura: crear una empresa que vendiera proyectos de I+D. No partimos de una patente preexistente ni de una tecnología novedosa. Partimos de la ilusión de transferir el conocimiento que teníamos. Hoy esa bendita locura se ha convertido en una realidad. Biopolis es una empresa biotecnológica que vende I+D en biotecnología microbiana y que es capaz de producir para sus clientes los microorganismos o los metabólicos microbianos que son el fruto de esos proyectos de investigación.
According to Schumpeter, economic development occurs through “gales of creative destruction” that lead to the emergence of new economic activities at the expense of obsolete ones. Because economic growth tends to generate social and environmental problems, more recently innovation scholars have used different concepts to explore “destructive creation” processes as well (Soete, 2011).
My research consists in investigating the link between geographical mobility and co-authorship formation and dynamics. I consider that existing literature has largely focused on the effect of mobility and collaborations on scientific productivity, but not sufficiently on the relationship between mobility and collaborations. Moreover, literature on collaboration has mainly focused on the organisation of collaborative research and the coordination of the partners involved during projects, leaving out the genesis of collaborations and partner linkage issues.
This paper investigates the relationship between the local endowment of Social Capital and the emergence of new innovative firms. Both Social Capital and entrepreneurship, indeed, can be described as coordination mechanisms acting via the mobilization of territorial resources. After drafting the importance of entrepreneurship for employment and technological production, we dedicate some effort to disambiguate the multifaceted concept of Social Capital.
El cumplimiento de la “Tercera Misión” ha llevado a las universidades a convertirse en un actor clave en el desarrollo social y económico en sus regiones de influencia; evidenciado en una relación mucho más estrecha con diferentes agentes de su entorno y sus necesidades; esto ha permitido mejorar la competitividad y la creación de riqueza en sus regiones de influencia. La dinámica de estas relaciones ha promovido el desarrollo de políticas públicas, por parte de los agentes gubernamentales, para su fomento y dinamización y las han constituido en objeto de interés para investigadores.
Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy)
The aim of this paper is to provide an empirical test of the impact of competition in procurement to reduce the effects of ‘environmental’ corruption. For this purpose, the paper examines whether competition is able to constrain the waste effects of corruption in the area where the public work is localised. We develop prior literature on the effects of corruption on infrastructure provision assessing whether more competition matters in constraining ’environmental’ corruption. For this purpose, a two-stage analysis is carried out.
Centre of African Studies. University of Edinburgh.
As part of the logistical infrastructure of the global economy, the political geographies of ports has received increasing attention. And indeed, old questions about economic infrastructure and political power are raised anew. However, in critical security studies, common transnational practices of securing and securitizing ports have been overemphasized. This paper uses controversies around African ports to dig deeper. To counter the emphasis on seemingly all-encompassing governmental practices, we look at technologies of governance through the lens of controversies.
This talk examines the phenomenon of predatory publishers and journals and the threats they pose to researchers, to research, and to scholarly communication. The speaker will also describe his work identifying predatory publishers, an effort that lasted from 2012 to early 2017. Selectivity in scholarly publishing is disappearing and peer review is failing. Consequently, anyone — including a promoter of pseudo-science — can augment his CV and earn academic credit, thanks to predatory publishers and predatory conference organizers.
Research on innovation has helped to shed light on how firms and other organisations establish networks that allow them to share knowledge and generate new ideas. However relatively less attention has been paid to the internal dynamics within firms, particularly the interaction between different specialisations and knowledge bases. This is particularly true in the context of post-Fordist theoretical approaches, which tend to assume that specialisation, rather than diversification, is the key to innovation.
This presentation investigates university research governance in relation to demands from national research policies. Specifically, it studies the scientific journal system in Colombia –SJSC-, which is used as an incentive to promote knowledge production and dissemination. Journal systems are used in R&D evaluation (Shapira & Kuhlmann, 2003), and performance appraisals (Binswanger, 2015). These systems are affected by international and national demands that produce tensions in the governance of research.
Cooperatives (coops) play an important role in both economic and social development. Since the nineteenth century, coops have been providing goods and services to their members, but potentially also other customers and suppliers. But nowadays, coops face big challenges, coops address responding to the society needs and market failures. At the same time, they are solving problems for customers, members and society in innovative ways.
Global Public Health Unit, University of Edinburgh
There is, according to a much debated recent paper, ‘a perfect storm’ gathering around the concept of ‘evidence-based policy’ (EBP), ‘generated by the insurgence of several concurrent crises’ (Saltelli and Giampietro, 2015: p1). This includes growing public distrust in science and academic expertise following the failings of mainstream economics that were highlighted by the 2008 global economic crisis, as well as broader indicators of public dissatisfaction with traditional policy elites.
Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai Japan
Scientific evidence is used in courts of law as a basis of judgment because of its independence of the parties in conflict. I will show the inevitable, fundamental conflict between the fair treatment of scientific evidence and the adversarial system by citing a case study on the protocol of cross-examination (2008) in which the authors were an expert witness (T.H.) in a court case concerning the effects of electromagnetic fields on health. After the examination in chief, the defendant’s attorney attempted to fabricate a scientific fact by asking T.H.
Dr. Alejandro Canales Sánchez; Dra. Mery Hamui Sutton
UNAM y UAM (México)
Se presentará un avance parcial sobre los procesos de formación de científicos, en donde se analizan los cambios en los estudios de posgrado en el sistema educativo nacional y particularmente se enfocarán las condiciones personales para realizar posdoctorados en jóvenes científicos mexicanos en tres diferentes campos de conocimiento. Es un estudio que toma como fuente de información datos estadísticos y entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a jóvenes investigadores en la etapa temprana de sus carreras (Early Career Researchers).
Joaquín M. Azagra-Caro (Ponente) |Nicolas Robinson-García and Anabel Fernández-Mesa
Some scientists write literary fiction books in their spare time. If these books contain scientific knowledge, literary fiction becomes a mechanism of knowledge transfer. When this is the case, in the framework of the distinction of formal versus informal knowledge transfer, we conceptualise literary fiction as spare-time formal knowledge transfer. We model scientific authorship of literary fiction as a function of geographical co-location between editors and authors, and knowledge transfer as a function of the type of scientist (academic or non-academic).
En este seminario se invita a reflexionar sobre el potencial del diálogo de saberes como estrategia de innovación en el contexto universitario. Dicho diálogo se entiende como la superación de las fronteras establecidas entre el conocimiento científico que goza de “validez” y el conocimiento “ilegítimo”. Con ese fin se presentarán resultados de mi tesis doctoral sobre la interrelación entre el discurso y las desigualdades sociales. El estudio permitió dilucidar en qué medida se refleja un lenguaje crítico común de descolonización en los discursos de actores de ONGD colombianas.
Excellence policies in science are becoming increasingly widespread for research quality assessment in a context of growing public accountability of broader social, cultural, environmental or economic returns to society of publicly funded research. Existing approaches to research quality assessment, however, insufficiently acknowledge the heterogeneity of individual scientists’ profiles which make scientific research conducive to major contributions for society through many different pathways, involving a wide diversity of actors, outputs, and long-term impacts.
En este seminario se quieren explorar las aportaciones que el enfoque de las capacidades para el desarrollo humano en diálogo con la literatura de Investigación Acción Participativa pueden realizar para el análisis de procesos de Video Participativo (VP).
El caso de estudio sobre el que se reflexionará es el la experiencia de VP realizada en el marco del proyecto Repensando el Cambio Climático. Alternativas de Innovación Social de Base para otro modelo de desarrollo.
Since many years historians of medicine have expressed a growing interest in the coexistence of different medical systems, a phenomenon quite familiar in present-day societies which gradually has been incorporated into the historical discourse. Most recent historiographical trends are pointing out that taking into account the pluralism of medicine is absolutely essential for a proper understanding of the strategies involved in health and illness during a particular historical period.
Professor in Innovation studies, CIRCLE, Lund University
It is now commonly argued that the locus of innovation has shifted away from individual firms and their supply chains, towards territorial economies and the 'global innovation networks' (GINs) by which they are linked. Still, scholars have yet to agree on the defining characteristics of GINs and on what sets them apart from other well studied network types and configurations. This is an important limitation, because it translates into conceptual stretching that makes the drivers and implications of GINs more difficult for research to capture and understand.
With this review, we want to explore contributions by science policy studies and the sociology of science to our understanding of the impact of governance on research content. This is not a straightforward task because the two fields are usually considered as separate and moving apart rather than converging. Recent reviews of science policy studies or science policy and innovation studies see them as detached from the sociology of science (Martin 2012; Martin et al. 2012; Trousset 2014).
University of Szeged, Faculty of Economics, Research Centre.
Participatory Action Research (PAR) emphasizes participation and action. It aims at providing social change and empowering the people involved in the process. At the Research Centre of Faculty of Economics located in the University of Szeged, we are diverse group of five scholars who aim to bridge the gap between academia and practice by using PAR. In this presentation I will describe the projects that we are involved in as well as the theoretical foundations of those.
Scientific publishing and the ways scientists use the scientific literature are changing rapidly. Obvious examples of this are the move away from print publication, and moves toward open access to text and data. But other changes in publishing are occurring as a result of the development of new ideas in science governance; in turn, some of these changes alter the way scientists and administrators look at governance.
J. C. Faus Mascarell (Ayto. Gandia) / F. Gallego García (Ayto. Picanya) / L. Pérez Sarrión (Ayto. Gandia)
Las Administraciones públicas son entidades intensivas en el manejo de información; un gran banco de pruebas. Y, a su vez, motor de cambio social. En el contexto de la Administración Electrónica, más allá de las normas y reglas formales, lo que cuenta es cómo se aplica la tecnología a la realidad cotidiana. Los profesionales públicos se esfuerzan en mejorar la eficacia, la eficiencia y la equidad de los servicios, convirtiendo su trabajo diario en un reto de innovación continua, sobretodo en un entorno extremadamente cambiante y en tiempos de crisis económica.
Durante décadas, la medición del impacto de los resultados de investigación (con fines evaluativos y de política científica principalmente) ha estado encorsetada a la utilización de ciertos indicadores bibliométricos extraídos básicamente del número de citas contabilizadas en las bibliografías de los materiales académicos publicados en ciertas revistas e indizados finalmente en ciertas bases de datos.
In the development of scientific careers, faculty benefit from the resources, advice and support of key individuals in their critical career path. These interpersonal ties may not only make a difference in career paths and advancement, but in some cases even alter career directions. Drawing from theories of social capital, social cognitive career theory, studies of mentoring, and scientific and technical human capital, this research addresses the variation in the developmental social capital in academic scientific careers and related impacts.
Institute for Sustainability Science and Technology – Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
A major challenge for higher education is to contribute to the transformation of the global society to a more sustainable and equitable one. Indeed, higher education institutions should play a significant role in promoting sustainable human development (SHD). Nevertheless, SHD is still far from being effectively integrated in the curricula.
This seminar focuses on the settlement patterns of migrant inventors’ across Europe's NUTS2 territories and the United States' Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs). In particular, we analyze regional attributes attracting a larger pool of foreign talent and skill, and contrast migrant inventors’ spatial concentration to the distribution of native inventors. For this purpose, we assemble a unique and novel dataset on inventors with a migratory background residing in OECD regions, spanning a large number of years (1990-2010).
Most bibliometric studies on collaboration in science use only coauthorship-based indicators to analyse collaborative research, which provides relevant information on the structure and dynamics of collaboration between researchers. However, as noted in the literature, if collaboration is reduced to co‐authorship some collaborative activity may be overlooked. Consequently, other sources of information on collaboration such as the acknowledgements section in scientific articles have been suggested.
This paper analyze the collaboration of the Brazilian government-controlled oil company, Petrobras and universities using bibliometric analysis. The main question that needs to be addressed is what is the nature and institutional distribution of Petrobras-university collaboration. Following the research question, this paper explores how the characteristics of collaboration change over time in terms of main partners, scientific fields and structure of Petrobras collaboration network.
Circle, Sweden and Utrecht University, The Netherlands
Agents of structural change
The role of firms and entrepreneurs in regional diversification
Frank Neffke, Matté Hartog, Ron Boschma, Martin Henning
F. Neffke: Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, M. Hartog: Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, R. Boschma: CIRCLE, Lund University and Urban and Regional research center Utrecht, Utrecht University, M. Henning: University of Gothenburg and Lund University.
Jacques Gaillard, Institut pour la Recherche et le Développement (IRD, París) y Anne Marie Gaillard (Consultora)
This seminar will include two successive presentations. The first one will review recent trends in international scientific migration focusing on return from migration and circulation. The second one will present and discuss the specific case of return migration of highly skilled Moroccan scientists and Engineers.
Brain Drain, Brain Gain, Brain Return and Circulation: is Brain Drain Over?
Entrepreneurs who want to commercialize an innovative sustainability technology, can actively build-up a supportive business-ecosystem (or innovation system) around their innovative technology. This enhances the chances of successful implementation of their innovation in society. Collective system building takes place in networks.
Questionnaire data is often used in the field of innovation studies to measure respondent preferences and even forecast behavior. Common approaches are using rating (e.g. Likert) or ranking scales. However, these types of measurement have their own specific drawbacks that inhibit them from accurately measuring preferences or forecasting behavior.
This seminar presents the result of an empirical study of the effects of the policy mix on innovation in energy efficiency technologies. An original dataset covering 23 OECD countries over the period 1990--2010 combines the full set of policies in the energy efficiency domain for the residential sector with data on patents applied over the same period in this specific technological sector.
This study provides a new, more comprehensive measurement of technological novelty. Integrating insights from the existing economics and management literature, we characterize inventions ex ante along two dimensions of technological novelty: Novelty in Recombination and Novelty in Knowledge Origins. For the latter dimension we distinguish between Novel Technological and Novel Scientific Origins. For each dimension we propose an operationalization using patent classification and citation information.
The aim of this project is to ascertain how the social structuration of the multiple and overlapping International Relations (IR) communities affects the diffusion of knowledge in the field of IR. In particular, we want to analyze how the various communities relate to each other and to identify the mechanisms – e.g. socialization, competition, functional and normative emulation – by which knowledge diffuses within and between them. The project is located at the intersection of International Relations and Sociology of Science.
This investigation analyses the causes of industrial localisation over the twentieth century in US counties by making emphasis on the service economy. Using census employment data by sector in four benchmark years, this paper examines the role of resource endowments and market size on county location coefficients.
While prior research has characterized star scientists as extraordinary contributors to their domain and carriers of extensive human and social capital, empirical studies report controversial results on their effect upon colleagues and collaborators. This paper explores the role of academic star scientist as firms’ collaboration partners in basic research. We explore the conditions under which these star-firm collaborations in basic research are most beneficial for the innovative performance of the collaborating firm.
The concept of responsible research and innovation (RRI) or responsible innovation (RI) has become steadily more central to the perceived futures of innovation and socio-economic development in Europe. According to the December 2014 Rome Declaration on RRI in Europe, RRI is the ‘on-going process of aligning research and innovation to the values, needs and expectations of society’.
Instituto de Gestión de la Innovación y del Conocimiento, INGENIO (CSIC-UPV)
This seminar provides a case study of the conduct of contract research at the European level linked to a rapidly evolving policy landscape. It discusses three aspects of social science work in partnership with a consortia of health and medical experts and organizations. First, it describes the conduct of a Work Package on the organization of diagnosis, treatment and care for Rare Disease patients in the context of the Member State policy collaboration and the European cross-border healthcare initiative.
Punto Nacional de Contacto para los asuntos legales y financieros de H2020 y Directora de Programa dependiente de la Oficina del CSIC en Bruselas.
El Instituto de Gestión de la Innovación y del Conocimiento, INGENIO (CSIC-UPV) presenta el seminario “LA TRANSVERSALIDAD DE LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE PROPUESTAS Y ASPECTOS LEGALES Y FINANCIEROS DEL H2020”, que tendrá lugar el próximo martes 30 de junio, a las 11 horas, en el Salón de Actos del cubo rojo de la Ciudad Politécnica de la Innovación (CPI) de la Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV). El seminario será impartido por Dña.
Los investigadores en CTS (Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad) están acostumbrados en estudiar lo que pasa en las ciencias naturales, medicina y ciencias de la vida, y con la introducción de nuevas tecnologías en la sociedad (entre otras las TICs), pero muy rara vez están mirando las ciencias sociales y la humanidades. Con la introducción de nuevas tecnologías digitales, esas ciencias también se transforman, nuevas prácticas y comunidades surgen. Es el caso con las humanidades digitales.
El término ‘Ciudades Inteligentes’ ó ‘Smart Cities' se ha convertido en uno de los más frecuentes dentro de la narrativa de la planificación urbana del siglo 21. Podría decirse que es la última utopía urbana con la que gobiernos de un significativo número de ciudades del mundo pretenden mitigar los efectos de la tan predicha explosión de habitantes urbanos que se avecina a nivel global para el 2020. La agenda de las ‘Ciudades Inteligentes’ está basada, principalmente, en el uso exhaustivo de datos para la organización y control de todos los aspectos de la vida urbana.
Low-skill employment in Spanish Local Labour Markets
The present paper contributes to the debate on the influence of technological change on labour with an empirical study of the evolution of employment in Spanish local labour markets. It builds on and contributes to existing literature by:
In recent years, the EU defined the basis to create innovation platforms to tackle down the Climate Change and boosting green innovation start-ups (GIS) for urban sociotechnical transition. The goals of these platforms are providing enterprising know-how, triggering innovation competence, highlighting potential innovation for angel investment, new technologies launching, and make adequate stimulation of integration of multi-firm complementarities through living labs (LLs).
In this seminar, Tuomo Heinonen presents his plan and preliminary results of doctoral thesis. Thesis focus on innovation in regenerative medicine (RM), which is a new stream in healthcare beside medicine and surgery with the aim of restoring normal human functioning by replacing or regenerating cells, tissues or organs. RM includes products from all the pillars of healthcare i.e. pharmaceuticals, biopharmaceuticals, medical devices and cell therapies, and focus in this study is especially in cell therapy industry.
Medir el impacto de una intervención pública que intenta fomentar la innovación tecnológica en las empresas es una cuestión complicada. El problema se ha abordado desde diferentes perspectivas como los estudios macroeconómicos, técnicas estadísticas paramétricas y no paramétricas que intentan reconstruir el contrafactual (lo que hubiera sucedido si la intervención no existiera) y evaluaciones narrativas.
Scientific publishing and the ways scientists use the scientific literature are changing almost on a daily basis. Obvious examples of this are the move away from print publication, and the move toward open access. But other changes in publishing are occurring as a result of the development of new ideas in science governance; in turn, some of these changes alter the way scientists and administrators look at governance.
Coordinador Institucional Delegación del CSIC en Bruselas
Descripción del proceso de definición, elaboración y puesta en marcha de la política europea de I+I por las Instituciones Europeas (Consejo, Parlamento Europeo y Comisión) y de las Instituciones públicas nacionales (agencias de fnanciación, organismos encargados de la ejecución de la I+I), tomando como ejemplo práctico la actuación de la Delegación del CSIC.
Instituto de Gestión de la Innovación y del Conocimiento, INGENIO (CSIC-UPV)
The structural and functional transformations observed in universities and Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) over the last decades have accelerated the transformation of their role in society. Traditional missions such as teaching and research are now seen as part of a broader and complex nexus of activities, while at the same time university is increasingly expected to engage with its surrounding environment.
Econcult (Cultural Economics Research Unit, University of Valencia)
The present economic crisis follows three different dimensions in Spain: an economic dimension linked to the explosion of the construction bubble, a social dimension represented by the loss of confidence in public institutions and in traditional political parties, and a third dimension that questions the territorial model of governance.
En este seminario la investigadora Michelle Bandeira presentará los resultados parciales de su tesis de doctorado.
La tesis tiene como objetivo proponer una estructura teórico metodológica para analizar la formación en salud en el ámbito de la justicia social. El marco teórico utilizado para este análisis es el enfoque de capacidades, propuesto por Amartya Sen y Martha Nussbaum.
Europe has a number of world-class Universities, inventive research centers, large companies and a vibrant SME fabric. However, notwithstanding long standing support to collaborative R&D by European Union institutions and Member States, evidence shows that few young leading innovators created in the last 25 years of the 20th century have European roots, a tenth of those originated in the US. Also, taking aside defense, European citizens already invest publicly per capita more than their US citizens.
Despite we are living under the social innovation imperative, the definition of Social Innovation (SI) remains elusive and its description as 'buzzword' or 'quasi-concept' even questions the substance of the term. This seminar will present a study examining the conceptualization of SI over the last six decades in order to answer the following questions:
Faculty of Management in Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, Poland
Socio-economic development after 1989 in Poland may be regarded as a standard for the transformation of a centrally planned economy to a free-market economy. After 25 years of transition and nearly 10 years of activity in the structures of the European Union, we should consider the challenges posed by the modern global economy. These relate to a number of dimensions: cultural, political, economic, etc. The presentation is focused on the following issues:
School of Economics, Finance & Marketing, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
This seminar will be about the theory of innovation, the possibilities of innovation policy, and the prospects of self-governance solutions. Specifically, I will explore what seem to be two distinct views on 'the innovation problem' (a la Arrow 1962). The first is the standard model of market failure that is solved through government action, with its suite of policy solutions including R&D tax credits, public funding of science & research, and intellectual property.
Policy Studies Institute, University of Westminster,London
The seminar addresses the implications of the European innovation policy turn toward societal challenges such as climate change. The new challenge-led approach reframes the policy agenda compared to the traditional technology-driven model. It is more attuned to systemic rather than singular innovation, and offers a broader definition of innovation which highlights social, organisational, and business model novelty. It is argued that this offers a richer and realistic perspective for the radical pervasive changes needed for the transition to a low carbon soc
Director of Centre for Research on Higher Education and Development (CRHED), University of the Free Sate, South Africa.
This seminar will explore a case for how university-based professional education in South Africa might contribute to the public good, in particular to poverty-reduction.
The main arguments are located within the domain of human development which recognizes that while economic well-being is necessary to human well-being, it is insufficient.In this conception of human development the focus is on improving lives and expanding choices and opportunities in a range of dimensions of life.
Although bio-pharmaceutical companies engage intensely in collaboration as well as in scientific publications it is not well understood how and why the choice of distinct partner types affects the quality of companies’ scientific publications. We contribute to this gap in the existing literature by analyzing whether collaboration with particular types of partners and whether network embeddedness influences the quality of publications in cancer research, and specifically of the scientific publications of biotech and of pharmaceutical companies.
Universitat Politècnica de València. Dpto. de Organización de Empresas
¿Cuáles son los principales mecanismos que dirigen el proceso aglomeración industrial y de formación de capacidades en un territorio? La investigación acerca de la evolución espacial de la industria ha generado una tensión entre dos perspectivas diferentes aún no resuelto (i) el papel desempeñado por las economías de aglomeración y, (ii) la reproducción organizativa espacial a través de spinoffs.
Desde el año 2009, la conformación del Espacio Interdisciplinario (EI) de la Universidad de la República (UDELAR, Uruguay) tuvo, entre sus objetivos principales, promover y fortalecer las prácticas de investigación interdisciplinaria en el contexto más amplio de la Universidad.
Instituto de Economía, Geografía y Demografía del CSIC
We performed econometric analysis to identify some of the main features of food and beverages foreign subsidiaries engaged in local R&D cooperation. The contribution of foreign subsidiaries to local networks of innovators seems to be financial and, probably, commercial rather than technical. Foreign subsidiaries which display high R&D intensity, a large number of R&D employees or a large share of new products in turnover are not necessarily engaged in local R&D ne
The study integrates economic geography literature with the strategic management strand, providing a cross-fertilization framework in order to explore the relationship between agglomerations and innovation. Competitors’ agglomerations may create benefits in forms of externalities which render extra sources of external (to the firm) knowledge. When such externalities exist, then who gains from whom? Despite an important body of research on this topic, the evidence is inconclusive and mostly based on few particular industries.
This paper investigates the determinants of the firm’s decisions to engage R&D cooperation,differentiating between if the cooperation is with national or internationalpartners. In our analysis we compare the six types of cooperation partners: cooperationwith competitors, suppliers or customers, and institutions from Spain, andcooperation with competitors, suppliers or customers, and institutions from acountry outside Spain, looking at whether is a foreign firm or domestic firm.
This paper analyzes the determinants of human capital (HC) endowment in Spanish regions. To do so we elaborate an empirical analysis grounded in the interface of two consolidated areas of research. On the one hand is the literature on economic geography that articulates in great detail the effect of local characteristics on the performance of a regional economy. At the same time, we argue, the traditional measures of human capital in these studies mostly focus on the supply-side (i.e. total number of graduates) thus neglecting altogether the dynamics of local labour markets.
Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. This paper contributes to this debate by progressing beyond the idea that researchers engage with society simply because of direct benefits. We argue that what matters for society is research that can be absorbed by users. We define ‘openness’ as a willingness by researchers to make research more usable by external partners by responding to external influences in their own research activities.
A full understanding of macro-level constructs requires a deep study of their micro-foundations or subsystems. Firm level constructs are created and shaped by lower-level psychological and behavioral mechanisms. We argue that it is necessary to clarify the influence of the CEO, the top management team (TMT) and their complementarities on TMT absorptive capacity. Through the study of 613 medium sized firms, we propose that TMT absorptive capacity could be more oriented to potential or realized absorptive capacity depending on the CEO tenure and the TMT transactive memory.
Using patent data on 755 applicants that carry out environmental inventions related to the road transport of passengers and goods, we investigate whether the environmental transport policy portfolio and the technological positions of assignees, boost green patent production. Our findings suggest that post-taxes fuel prices and European emission standards, introduced in the empirical model through an innovative methodology, influence positively the creation of environmental inventions.
The prevalent state of opinion acknowledges that contributions of universities to technological innovation should be not only spontaneous but also planned. The shift has obscured the need for further understanding of what is behind academic spillovers, and especially of the relation between localised and delocalised spillovers. A case study of one of the most cited university patents show some underlying patterns of spillovers, and of the complexity of achieving local impact.
El objetivo de este seminario es presentar un método de análisis del grado de alineamiento entre los objetivos establecidos por la Universidad para su OTRI y los resultados que esta oficina logra a través de las acciones que ejecuta para satisfacerlos. Se ha desarrollado el trabajo mediante el estudio del caso de la OTRI de la UPV. Para realizar el estudio se ha empleado el Proceso Analítico Jerárquico (AHP) y el Proceso Analítico en Red (ANP). La OTRI analizada presenta un alto grado de alineamiento, si bien con algunos aspectos a mejorar.
Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo
Given the popularity of the innovation concepts, many innovation scholars are called upon to give general lectures about innovation to practitioners and not least to students from other disciplines, students who have not actively chosen to study innovation but who take it as part of another programme. Often this is in the form of a course in "Innovation and entrepreneurship" or something similar, and the poor medical, engineering or humanities students may even have this as a compulsory course. So how can we do it?
The organization and delivery of improved quality of care for Rare Disease (RD) patients confronts a fundamental challenge: how to make knowledge and expertise that is itself scarce available to the sufferers of RDs in a timely and accessible manner. At the European level criteria are being developed for the designation of Centres of Expertise (CEs) and the establishment of Reference Networks (ERNs) with the objective of addressing this challenge.
The organization and delivery of improved quality of care for Rare Disease (RD) patients confronts a fundamental challenge: how to make knowledge and expertise that is itself scarce available to the sufferers of RDs in a timely and accessible manner. At the European level criteria are being developed for the designation of Centres of Expertise (CEs) and the establishment of Reference Networks (ERNs) with the objective of addressing this challenge.
In this presentation we aim to give an overview of the field of personal network analysis. We will define personal networks, describe for which aims they are used, and describe briefly how they are being measured and what is known so far. The presentation will be illustrated with examples from our own research projects. We will pay special attention to the latest developments in the field, such as EgoNet's new features, clustered graphs, the longitudinal analysis of personal networks with RSiena, and combining egonetworks into whole networks.
This paper investigates the link between environment related innovation and job creation at firm level. Employing Italian data on 4,507 manufacturing firms, matched with patent records for the period 2001-2008, we test whether “green” innovation, measured using the number of environment related patents, has a positive effect on long run employment growth that is specific with respect to non environmental innovation. Results show a strong positive impact of “green” innovation on long run job creation, substantially bigger than the effect of other innovations.
En este seminario se abordarán los elementos centrales del enfoque de las capacidades para el desarrollo humano y las perspectivas que abre para repensar la universidad. Según esta aproximación, el objetivo de cualquier proceso de desarrollo, y de las instituciones que lo impulsan (como puede ser la universidad), es ampliar las capacidades de las personas, lo que éstas son capaces de hacer o ser.
Patent citations provide a flawed measure of knowledge flows, since differences in who inserted them (applicants or examiners) may alter the results of geographical analyses. However, these differences are useful to build indicators about trust in a country’s technological production. We find huge variation in the probability of an applicant originating a citation rather than the examiner across European countries, with European Patent Office (EPO) data of over 3,500,000 citations in years 1997-2007. Lower values of this probability indicate higher trust.
Ante la necesidad de desarrollar actividades de alto contenido tecnológico apoyándose en I+D de vanguardia, de acuerdo con los objetivos de la Declaración de Lisboa en el seno de UE, el gobierno italiano a través del MIUR (Ministerio de la Educación, de la Universidad y de la Investigación), a partir de los primeros años de la década del 2000, apoyó la constitución de Distritos Tecnológicos (DT) de ámbito regional distribuidos por toda la geografía italiana, con la participación necesaria de los gobiernos regionales y las principales universidades y centros de i
In this presentation, I will discuss some quantitative and qualitative approaches to examining given fields of research in a national or international context. Specifically, I will argue for a history and sociology of science which combines analyses of social and cognitive structures by using disciplines, specializations and portfolios as units of analysis. I will refer the example of atmospheric science in Canada to illustrate how one can understand the emergence and dynamics of a discipline on a national scale.
La presente tesis se encuadra dentro del debate sobre el papel de las universidades en el desarrollo socioeconómico de las regiones. En la primera parte de la tesis se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre economía regional, centrada en cómo tres conceptos principales –distrito industrial, cluster y sistema local de innovación-- han tratado desde sus respectivos enfoques teóricos, el papel de las instituciones de educación superior.
This informal discussion would be centred around the "non-research" component of public science policy within a government context, based on part on personal experience in the field (in Canada) and in part on existing scholarly perspectives. Broadly, this is an opportunity to explore the relationships between practitioners and researchers in science policy. The presentation will first briefly introduce an instance of science policy through the Canadian "S&T system".
Extant research acknowledges that knowledge creation and knowledge flows play an important role in the process of value creation within knowledge-based societies. One of the conceptual frameworks placing knowledge creation and knowledge flow at the center of value creation is the knowledge-based view of the firm (KBV). The KBV supports the idea that knowledge is the key factor of an organizations’ success and, thereby, a continuous exchange of knowledge within organizational members is a primary source of sustainable competitive advantage.
The seminar will present the very first steps of an INGENIO initiative to develop an approach to evaluate investments in “Translational Research”. Unlike most evaluation studies, this work is not related to any specific evaluation assignment; instead, it seeks to develop a framework that we can later use to strengthen INGENIO’s evaluation offer in the biomedical field.
Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto (Canada)
Social enterprises often face highly uncertain environments and wicked problems at the intersection of groups with very different logics. To succeed, social enterprises often must be persistently entrepreneurial in the face of changing conditions. To date, work on social enterprises has focused primarily on definitional issues, or on how such organizations manage the divergent logics associated with creating social and economic value at the same time.
Access to global innovation networks (GINs) has been unequal across the regions of the world. While certain regions are considered knowledge hubs in GINs, others still remain marginalized; this points to the role of regional innovation systems in the emergence and development of GINs. Using firm-level data collected through a survey and case studies in 2009–2010, this article systematically compares the patterns of global networks in the ICT industry in a selection of European, Chinese and Indian regions.
En el presente seminario nos aproximamos a la innovación desde un punto de vista discursivo. Utilizaremos este enfoque para analizar el “corpus de discursos expertos de la innovación” en el sector de la acuicultura de la Comunidad Valenciana y las implicaciones que tiene en el ámbito de la pesca. Nuestra intención no será detectar en él características específicas del ámbito científico técnico, o comparar una definición precisa de la innovación con la realidad empírica.
Interactions among agents in the innovation system are critical for the promotion of knowledge exchange, learning processes and the innovation process. The analysis of interactions between universities or public research organisations (science) and social agents (society) has received great attention in the scientific community because, among other reasons, the results of these interactions can have implications for the design of science and innovation policies and organisation management.
Studies in the economic approach to innovation have highlighted the relevance of external knowledge for the development of firm’s innovation processes. In the same line, it has been acknowledged that the exploitation of external knowledge sources is mostly dependent on firm’s internal capacities or commonly known as the firm’s absorptive capacity. This capacity has been basically associated to the firm’s internal knowledge base, as a result of R&D activities.
Previous research has modelled the evolution of either knowledge creation or knowledge networks, but not their co-evolution. This work presents an agent-based model to cover this gap and challenge the intuition that both phenomena are mutually re-enforcing. The model consists on the rules of partner selection and the rules of knowledge creation by the agents. Agents in the knowledge network choose their partners depending on their previous collaboration history and on their attractiveness.
This work proposes a theoretical framework which integrates the literature on scientific and technological networks’ co-evolution (Murray, 2002), “duality” of people and groups (Breiger, 1974; Lazega et al. 2008), and the “Triple Helix” of innovation (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff 1997, 2000).
The presentation aims to analyze the interaction experience of a multidisciplinary team in the formulation process of the renewable energy local normative. A set of different elements on the formulation process and the content of the normative will be analyzed by exploring the concept of reflexive governance.
Science has solved a large number of social, medical and technical problems. In doing so, many of the low hanging fruit have been addressed leaving more difficult problems. This talk discusses some of the problems that society faces and explores how well the research system is aligned to address them. It highlights the problem of lock-in and entrenchment and how the ways we think about research can constrain its ability to produce solutions to important problems.
Following the process-based absorptive capacity definition, this article identifies technology and market capacity as two critical competencies influencing absorptive capacity. Data from a multi-informant survey conducted in 426 industrial firms from 4 sectors with different levels of technology show that market and technology capabilities act as moderator variables in the relationship between exploratory and transformative learning, with a triple interaction effect.
LUISS Guido Carli University, Copenhagen Business School
We combine structural and psychological perspectives on creativity in organizations. Employees are expected to be more likely to be creative if they occupy a brokerage position that provides them with access to non-redundant information. However, we draw on bounded rationality arguments and propose that being exposed to diverse information also carries cognitive costs.
Innovation networks today are widely considered as a promising tool for the organization of industrial R&D bringing together heterogeneous actors and their heterogeneous knowledge bases. For the analysis of the architecture and the dynamics of innovation networks it becomes necessary to explicitly focus on knowledge generation and diffusion processes in the networks - the recourse to accumulated R&D capital which characterizes models in a neoclassical fashion is not sufficient.
Despite the emergence and fast expansion of Living Lab (LL) around the world, little research has been conducted on the concept of LL from the perspective of both technological and social innovation and network governance. This paper critically reviews literature on the LL concept and other ‘innovation labs’ involving cross-border collaboration between private, public, and third sectors.
Chair of Science and Innovation Studies at Leiden University
A university-industry co-publication (UIC) is a co-authored research publication by academic authors and R&D-staff at business companies. These joint publications represent successful research cooperation, but also reflect research-related interactions and knowledge transfer from academia to business sector partners. An estimated 30,000 to 50,000 UICs are produced annually in the open scientific literature. This is a rich source of objective empirical information on many structural characteristics of these cross-sectoral collaborative relationships.
We examine the social underpinnings of intergroup effectiveness—the effectiveness with which pairs of teams perform on joint tasks. In adopting a relational social network perspective, we propose that strong ties within and across team boundaries assume center-stage in facilitating the collaborative performance of resource-interdependent teams.
The promotion and implementation of appropriate actions for entrepreneurship contribution to economic and social development in Latin America seeking a positive result requires an understanding of entrepreneurship as a broad concept. This leads to a conceptualization of the term that goes beyond the mere creation of companies, with emphasis on developing entrepreneurial skills that contribute to social mobility and the generation of entrepreneurial organizations.
Grassroots innovation movements are salient once again, although networks of activist-innovators go back to interest in appropriate technology in the 1970s and earlier. Common to these movements is a vision for innovation processes more inclusive towards local communities in terms of knowledge, processes and outcomes. After introducing some examples, this presentation considers different perspectives on grassroots innovation movements: grassroots ingenuity; grassroots empowerment; and structural critique.
We propose the concept of pro-social research as reflecting the adoption of attitudes and conducts that place social relevance as a critical goal of research. We argue that pro-social conducts represent a behavioural antecedent of the actual engagement of scientists in knowledge transfer activities. We investigate the impact that different cognitive aspects have on the development of pro-social research behaviour. In particular, we examine if certain types of research skills (i.e.
The financial crisis has important implications for national R&D systems, with impacts at all levels of research funding, performance and governance. Through an incisive view of the recent history of the Greek R&D system, as reconstructed through available statistics and qualitative stories, the seminar will highlight the impacts of the crisis and will discuss the opportunities and constraints posed by the financial crisis to the reform of national R&D systems in the European context.
Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam
Non-linearities in systems of innovations can be explained in terms of composing sub-dynamics. University-industry-government relations, for example, can be analyzed in terms of institutional networks among agents or functional synergies among scientific novelty production, economic wealth generation, and normative control as communication systems. One can raise the question to what extent “systemness” can be retained from these interacting dynamics at regional or national levels.
Las decisiones sobre gestión medioambiental son la causa de grandes debates y profundos desacuerdos. La fuente subyacente de desacuerdos está en la naturaleza multi-perspectiva de la mayoría de problemas medioambientales. Las decisiones sobre gestión medioambiental tiene lugar a muchos niveles (vecinos, ciudad, estado,…) e implica a un número de actores involucrados (tales como agricultores, propietarios de tierras, empresarios, planificadores urbanos, …) que tienen diferentes intereses creados respecto a la decisión final.
The present paper seeks to elaborate an empirical analysis of the knowledge base of industrial sectors in the United States (US). Our broad objective is to distinguish sectors by looking at their repertoires of skills – that is, ability or proficiency in using and carrying out a set of tasks. In particular we set out to address these two questions:
Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS), University of Twente, the Netherlands
How does research create societal value? Although it seems intuitive that investing in science will drive technological and hence economic development, evidence of the efficacy of those investments is far more ambivalent about the causal link between academic research and social value creation. This presentation seeks to problematize the current innovation policy debate as missing important conceptual nuances about how valorisation processes could potentially function.
El objetivo del seminario es mostrar el estado actual del trabajo de investigación cuyo objetivo es: “ayudar a resolver el problema que se le plantea a los gestores de las OTRIS de los centros públicos de investigación cuando tienen que negociar con empresas privadas la licencia de una patente generada por investigadores de los centros públicos”.
Triple Helix Research Group, H-STAR Institute, Stanford University
This presentation introduces the concept of Triple Helix systems as an analytical construct that systematizes the key features of university-industry-government (Triple Helix) interactions into an ‘innovation system’ format defined according to systems theory as a set of components, relationships and functions.
Centre for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS), University of Twente
The scope of opportunities for researchers to change their lines of research is crucial for the performance of science systems. These changes themselves vary in terms of their impact on the field - from local changes to field-level changes (scientific innovations) and from low-cost to high-cost changes. Opportunities for changes strongly depend on formal organisations because they control many conditions of research.
Center for Technology and Society, University of Technology Berlin
Research evaluation systems – national-level evaluation procedures for the systematic periodic evaluation of university research in a country – are governance tools that have been invented three decades ago, and have been enjoying increasing popularity in higher education policy communities ever since. They can be used to legitimise the allocation of funding, to save money, or to provide universities with both the incentives and the information for improving their research.
Over thirty years ago I wrote an extended essay, The Moon and the Ghetto, concerned with the troubling question of why societies so rich and capable technologically and organizationally as to be able to land a man on the moon seemed unable to deal effectively with e.g. poverty, illiteracy, slums. I argued that, while politics was part of the reason, in many cases the problem was that our scientific knowledge and technological know-how was not sufficient to point the way to a solution.
The determinants of R&D are an important topic of industrial economics. The classical Schumpeterian hypotheses about the influence of size and market power have been complemented with the role played by industry determinants, such as demand pull, technological opportunity and appropriability, in determining R&D investments. However, R&D has always been considered as a whole, even though research and development are different activities with different purposes, knowledge bases, people and management styles.
This paper describes the methodology, characteristics and potential use of BioPat, a dataset containing patents in the field of biofuels. The innovative methodology we use aims to solve drawbacks related to how patent data are allocated and organized in international databases.
El incremento significativo de la ciencia hace necesaria información derivada del acto de publicar para analizar y evaluar los resultados de investigación de una forma exhaustiva y diferenciada. Esta información no necesita ser observada de forma unidimensional, por el contrario, los indicadores ciencimétricos deben ser capaces de proveer una respuesta compacta a las cuestiones que suscita la calidad de la investigación científica.
SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton [United Kingdom]
Our understanding of the performance of nascent businesses is greatly hampered by data limitations. In this research we exploit a unique dataset coming from customer records from Barclay’s Bank. The data source has several unique qualities which have been previously unavailable to academic researchers. First, it accurately identifies the month and year at which a business actually started trading, defined as the time at which the business generated its first sales. Second, all financial data are then available.
Innovation – doing new things in new ways – holds the potential for great benefits to humanity. In its current institutional configuration, however, those benefits go primarily to affluent consumers and countries, and very seldom to low-income households or communities. While inequality between countries is decreasing, measured by average incomes, inequality within countries is increasing, and the global level of inequality at household level is barely changing. Could innovation be directed to inclusive development?
OFCE-SciencePo (Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques)
This presentation is based on a paper that carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion-mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base.
Institut Francilien Recherche Innovation Société (IFRIS)
This presentation is based on a paper that tackles the conflict born out of the dual requirements of academic excellence and professional relevance that business schools have to contend with due to their dual quest for legitimacy: academic legitimacy on the one hand evaluated by peers and based on self-developed criteria of “excellence”; and professional legitimacy which is evaluated exogenously based on the relevance of the diplomas awarded to the commercial and business world.
In light of the increasing importance of social innovation, this study looks at the theoretical concepts, areas of empirical research and observable trends in the field of social innovation. This trend study starts with an overview of the current situation and the perspectives of socio-scientific innovation research that have greatly contributed to the development and spread of an enlightened socio-scientific understanding of innovation.
A variety of theoretical explanations have been forwarded to explain women’s consistent under-representation in academic scientific disciplines, and each has generated empirical evidence that support hypothesized dynamics.
SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton [United Kingdom]
The study builds on and contributes to understanding how latecomer producers can catch up with their frontier leaders in the industry of mobile handsets. While the topic 'catch-up by latecomers' is by now a familiar one in the literature, this study focuses on 'getting in the game' rather than 'getting to the top of the game', so-called transition to a frontier. Starting from scratch, two of Korean mobile handset makers, Samsung and LG Electronics, have become the second and third biggest players behind Nokia as of 2009.
We study collaborative and non-collaborative projects that are supported by government grants. First, we propose a theoretical framework to analyze optimal decisions in these projects. Second, we test our hypotheses with a unique dataset containing academic publications and research funds for all the academics at the major engineering departments in the UK. We find that the type of the project (measured by its level of appliedness) is increasing in the type of both the university and firm partners.
The present paper discusses at length different aspects related to the ex-post effect assessment of R&D and innovation (RDI) policies. The main objective is that of providing the reader with a detailed discussion of theelements needed to design suitably ex-post evaluation. It is done by providing a (comprehensive) “conceptualframework” where agents’ behaviors, factors affecting their decisions and quantitative (econometric) methods for impact evaluation are presented and discussed in depth.
The literature has pointed to different causes to explain the productivity gap between Europe and United States in the last decades. This paper tests the hypothesis that the lower European productivity performance in comparison with the US can be explained not only by a lower level of corporate R&D investment, but also by a lower capacity to translate R&D investment into productivity gains.
The objective of this seminar is to explore the connection between two quite different strands of economic thought, namely the Schumpeterian-evolutionary theory of innovation and competition and the classical-Sraffian theory of prices and distribution. The treatment of innovation is unavoidably complicated in both perspectives. Economies that experience innovation are by definition in transitional states; their industries are populations of firms distinguished by different methods of production, industries that are engaged in a process of adapting to the prospects generated by innovation.
Innovation is currently seen as a cornerstone not only for economic development but also as an intrinsic human activity that could help to face the great challenges of human kind. Differences on innovation performance across sectors and countries give a variated landscape to the industrial structure and growth rates. Given the importance of innovation in the new European 2020 Strategy, measuring progress but also monitoring what drives innovation becomes crucial for policy development.
El objetivo de la conferencia será, en primer lugar, presentar algunas conclusiones de una investigación publicada en el 2010, titulada “El papel de la innovación en un nuevo modelo económico español”. Dichas conclusiones justifican un nuevo proyecto en curso, cuyos objetivos y resultados hasta la fecha se presentarán en segundo lugar. Este proyecto pretende mejorar la capacidad de financiación de la innovación en las PYMES, a través de una herramienta que permite elaborar, de manera sistemática y auditable, información sobre sus intangibles y capital intelectual.
PharmaMar es una compañía de biotecnología líder en el descubrimiento y desarrollo de fármacos de origen marino, fundada en 1986. Su fundador nos contará su experiencia innovadora a lo largo de estos 25 años.
This paper offers some insights into scientific collaboration (SC) at the regional level by drawing upon two lines of inquiry. The first involves examining the spatial patterns of university SC across the EU-15 (all countries belonging to the European Union between 1995 and 2004).
Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
Entry into foreign markets is a key decision in the growth strategy of modern firms. This paper addresses the problem of the drivers of internationalization and studies the link between international expansion, industrial diversification and related firm characteristics. To capture salient aspects of knowledge-based competitive processes and to redress imbalances in the scholarly attention given to services and to manufacturing sectors, we focus on professional service firms (PSFs), one of the most innovative and dynamic components of advanced economies.
Objeto de estudio: Nuestro objeto de estudio es la conexión entre la movilidad internacional de los investigadores y la formación y evolución de sus redes de colaboración científica. En adelante, llamaremos a esta interrelación el fenómeno MR o la conexión MR (“M” de movilidad y “R” de redes).
Motivaciones: El estudio de la conexión MR fue motivado por la percepción de los siguientes hechos:
This presentation is based on a paper that provides empirical evidence on the relationship between indicators of competitive pressure and innovation incentives using panel data of Spanish manufacturing firms for the period 1990‐2006. Instead of using standard indicators of competition, such as market concentration measures or firms’ price costs margins, we analyze a number of indicators of competitive pressure directly related to the demand and cost conditions faced by firms. We consider the likely different incentives fac
This presentation highlights some of the findings from projects studying how international scientific mobility affects dynamics of life science research in China and Argentina. The main focus lies on bibliometric studies of the relationship between mobility, international collaboration as well as career progression (in the case of Argentina). These studies show some of the effects of the scientific social capital which researchers build up during foreign work experience.
Head of the "Knowledge for Growth" Unit of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission
There is a large body of evidence confirming that investment in R&D leads to long-term increases of GDP and employment levels and there is a positive impact of corporate R&D on company productivity and market growth.
Los análisis de cienciometría producen información útil para la comprensión de determinadas pautas o tendencias de la actividad investigadora. La tecnología “Tech Mining” es nuestra propuesta para combinar la útil bibliometría de sobremesa con herramientas de minería de textos para extraer información de diversas bases de datos. Tech Mining permite al usuario seleccionar objetivos de análisis muy específicos para abordar cuestiones relativas a las dinámicas de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (CTI).
Our work intends to verify the impact of geographical proximity on the processes of knowledge acquisition and exploitation by high-tech start-ups, considering at the same time the role of both the social and cognitive dimensions of proximity. Our basic assumption is that proximity means a lot more than just geography.
In recent years there has been renewed interest upon the analysis of the direction of technological change and its effects on the actual efficiency of production processes after the introduction of non-neutral technological changes. The empirical evidence shows that significant changes in the distribution of revenue across production factors have been taking place in the last thirty years in the major OECD economies; specifically in many countries the share of labor has diminished while the share of capital has increased.
The presentation discusses the strength and weaknesses of the so-called linear model (LM) of innovation. It is a reaction to the habit of criticising it as over simplistic, mechanistic, or simply blatantly wrong. I argue that, while some criticisms are of course well grounded, many others are instead based on loose interpretations and unwarranted assumptions.
The analysis of clusters has attracted considerable interest over the last few decades. The articulation of clusters into complex networks and systems of innovation - generally known as regional innovation systems - has, in particular, been associated with the delivery of greater innovation and growth. However, despite the growing economic and policy relevance of clusters, little systematic research has been conducted into their association with other factors promoting innovation and economic growth.
Recent trends in the use of the Internet suggest that user-produced content (blogs, Facebook pages, YouTube, and many other forms) is engaging a growing amount of user effort and also user attention. The history of the media industries has involved important audience displacement effects -- e.g. television had major impacts on magazines by diverting audience. New media have also had more direct competitive effects -- e.g.
SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton [United Kingdom]
Over recent years, the interrelationships between technology and industrial location behaviour have come to be seen as essential features of regional development. Much research and policy-thinking has been devoted to understanding the factors explaining why particular types of technologies appear to thrive in particular localities, and how this affects local economic growth. Lessons are often drawn from observations of particularly successful ‘innovative’ regions as a means of re-modelling both industrial and regional policy.
Evolutionary and neoclassic economics are at antipodes regarding the “catching-up” of less developed territories: the former maintain that it’s variable and depends on institutions; the latter say that it’s unavoidable and territories converge. In the evolutionary tradition, Pérez and Soete (1988) state that “catching-up” is easier in the initial stage of new technologies. This presentation will analyze these different hypotheses in the fields of biotechnology and nanotechnology with data from emerging countries.
In this presentation the author will firstly define what KT can be considered to include within the university setting and then try to identify what differentiates KT from the teaching and research functions. Once accepted that KT is in itself a professional activity to be carried out by experts but with different drivers to teaching and research then a case can be made for special governance arrangements. Various models of governance and management ranging from the for-profit plc to a unit within central services of a university will be considered.
The field of science policy and innovation studies (SPIS) is now approximately 50 years old. From humble beginnings involving just a handful of researchers in late 1950s, it has grown to become a significant field of intellectual activity involving several thousand researchers. Some of its contributions have had a major impact on neighbouring social science disciplines as well as on policy or management practice.