In this presentation, I will discuss some quantitative and qualitative approaches to examining given fields of research in a national or international context. Specifically, I will argue for a history and sociology of science which combines analyses of social and cognitive structures by using disciplines, specializations and portfolios as units of analysis. I will refer the example of atmospheric science in Canada to illustrate how one can understand the emergence and dynamics of a discipline on a national scale.
La presente tesis se encuadra dentro del debate sobre el papel de las universidades en el desarrollo socioeconómico de las regiones. En la primera parte de la tesis se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre economía regional, centrada en cómo tres conceptos principales –distrito industrial, cluster y sistema local de innovación-- han tratado desde sus respectivos enfoques teóricos, el papel de las instituciones de educación superior.
This informal discussion would be centred around the "non-research" component of public science policy within a government context, based on part on personal experience in the field (in Canada) and in part on existing scholarly perspectives. Broadly, this is an opportunity to explore the relationships between practitioners and researchers in science policy. The presentation will first briefly introduce an instance of science policy through the Canadian "S&T system".
Extant research acknowledges that knowledge creation and knowledge flows play an important role in the process of value creation within knowledge-based societies. One of the conceptual frameworks placing knowledge creation and knowledge flow at the center of value creation is the knowledge-based view of the firm (KBV). The KBV supports the idea that knowledge is the key factor of an organizations’ success and, thereby, a continuous exchange of knowledge within organizational members is a primary source of sustainable competitive advantage.
The seminar will present the very first steps of an INGENIO initiative to develop an approach to evaluate investments in “Translational Research”. Unlike most evaluation studies, this work is not related to any specific evaluation assignment; instead, it seeks to develop a framework that we can later use to strengthen INGENIO’s evaluation offer in the biomedical field.
Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto (Canada)
Social enterprises often face highly uncertain environments and wicked problems at the intersection of groups with very different logics. To succeed, social enterprises often must be persistently entrepreneurial in the face of changing conditions. To date, work on social enterprises has focused primarily on definitional issues, or on how such organizations manage the divergent logics associated with creating social and economic value at the same time.
Access to global innovation networks (GINs) has been unequal across the regions of the world. While certain regions are considered knowledge hubs in GINs, others still remain marginalized; this points to the role of regional innovation systems in the emergence and development of GINs. Using firm-level data collected through a survey and case studies in 2009–2010, this article systematically compares the patterns of global networks in the ICT industry in a selection of European, Chinese and Indian regions.
En el presente seminario nos aproximamos a la innovación desde un punto de vista discursivo. Utilizaremos este enfoque para analizar el “corpus de discursos expertos de la innovación” en el sector de la acuicultura de la Comunidad Valenciana y las implicaciones que tiene en el ámbito de la pesca. Nuestra intención no será detectar en él características específicas del ámbito científico técnico, o comparar una definición precisa de la innovación con la realidad empírica.
Interactions among agents in the innovation system are critical for the promotion of knowledge exchange, learning processes and the innovation process. The analysis of interactions between universities or public research organisations (science) and social agents (society) has received great attention in the scientific community because, among other reasons, the results of these interactions can have implications for the design of science and innovation policies and organisation management.
Studies in the economic approach to innovation have highlighted the relevance of external knowledge for the development of firm’s innovation processes. In the same line, it has been acknowledged that the exploitation of external knowledge sources is mostly dependent on firm’s internal capacities or commonly known as the firm’s absorptive capacity. This capacity has been basically associated to the firm’s internal knowledge base, as a result of R&D activities.
Previous research has modelled the evolution of either knowledge creation or knowledge networks, but not their co-evolution. This work presents an agent-based model to cover this gap and challenge the intuition that both phenomena are mutually re-enforcing. The model consists on the rules of partner selection and the rules of knowledge creation by the agents. Agents in the knowledge network choose their partners depending on their previous collaboration history and on their attractiveness.
This work proposes a theoretical framework which integrates the literature on scientific and technological networks’ co-evolution (Murray, 2002), “duality” of people and groups (Breiger, 1974; Lazega et al. 2008), and the “Triple Helix” of innovation (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff 1997, 2000).
The presentation aims to analyze the interaction experience of a multidisciplinary team in the formulation process of the renewable energy local normative. A set of different elements on the formulation process and the content of the normative will be analyzed by exploring the concept of reflexive governance.
Science has solved a large number of social, medical and technical problems. In doing so, many of the low hanging fruit have been addressed leaving more difficult problems. This talk discusses some of the problems that society faces and explores how well the research system is aligned to address them. It highlights the problem of lock-in and entrenchment and how the ways we think about research can constrain its ability to produce solutions to important problems.
Following the process-based absorptive capacity definition, this article identifies technology and market capacity as two critical competencies influencing absorptive capacity. Data from a multi-informant survey conducted in 426 industrial firms from 4 sectors with different levels of technology show that market and technology capabilities act as moderator variables in the relationship between exploratory and transformative learning, with a triple interaction effect.
LUISS Guido Carli University, Copenhagen Business School
We combine structural and psychological perspectives on creativity in organizations. Employees are expected to be more likely to be creative if they occupy a brokerage position that provides them with access to non-redundant information. However, we draw on bounded rationality arguments and propose that being exposed to diverse information also carries cognitive costs.
Innovation networks today are widely considered as a promising tool for the organization of industrial R&D bringing together heterogeneous actors and their heterogeneous knowledge bases. For the analysis of the architecture and the dynamics of innovation networks it becomes necessary to explicitly focus on knowledge generation and diffusion processes in the networks - the recourse to accumulated R&D capital which characterizes models in a neoclassical fashion is not sufficient.
Despite the emergence and fast expansion of Living Lab (LL) around the world, little research has been conducted on the concept of LL from the perspective of both technological and social innovation and network governance. This paper critically reviews literature on the LL concept and other ‘innovation labs’ involving cross-border collaboration between private, public, and third sectors.
Chair of Science and Innovation Studies at Leiden University
A university-industry co-publication (UIC) is a co-authored research publication by academic authors and R&D-staff at business companies. These joint publications represent successful research cooperation, but also reflect research-related interactions and knowledge transfer from academia to business sector partners. An estimated 30,000 to 50,000 UICs are produced annually in the open scientific literature. This is a rich source of objective empirical information on many structural characteristics of these cross-sectoral collaborative relationships.
We examine the social underpinnings of intergroup effectiveness—the effectiveness with which pairs of teams perform on joint tasks. In adopting a relational social network perspective, we propose that strong ties within and across team boundaries assume center-stage in facilitating the collaborative performance of resource-interdependent teams.
The promotion and implementation of appropriate actions for entrepreneurship contribution to economic and social development in Latin America seeking a positive result requires an understanding of entrepreneurship as a broad concept. This leads to a conceptualization of the term that goes beyond the mere creation of companies, with emphasis on developing entrepreneurial skills that contribute to social mobility and the generation of entrepreneurial organizations.
Grassroots innovation movements are salient once again, although networks of activist-innovators go back to interest in appropriate technology in the 1970s and earlier. Common to these movements is a vision for innovation processes more inclusive towards local communities in terms of knowledge, processes and outcomes. After introducing some examples, this presentation considers different perspectives on grassroots innovation movements: grassroots ingenuity; grassroots empowerment; and structural critique.
We propose the concept of pro-social research as reflecting the adoption of attitudes and conducts that place social relevance as a critical goal of research. We argue that pro-social conducts represent a behavioural antecedent of the actual engagement of scientists in knowledge transfer activities. We investigate the impact that different cognitive aspects have on the development of pro-social research behaviour. In particular, we examine if certain types of research skills (i.e.
The financial crisis has important implications for national R&D systems, with impacts at all levels of research funding, performance and governance. Through an incisive view of the recent history of the Greek R&D system, as reconstructed through available statistics and qualitative stories, the seminar will highlight the impacts of the crisis and will discuss the opportunities and constraints posed by the financial crisis to the reform of national R&D systems in the European context.
Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam
Non-linearities in systems of innovations can be explained in terms of composing sub-dynamics. University-industry-government relations, for example, can be analyzed in terms of institutional networks among agents or functional synergies among scientific novelty production, economic wealth generation, and normative control as communication systems. One can raise the question to what extent “systemness” can be retained from these interacting dynamics at regional or national levels.