The presentation aims to analyze the interaction experience of a multidisciplinary team in the formulation process of the renewable energy local normative. A set of different elements on the formulation process and the content of the normative will be analyzed by exploring the concept of reflexive governance.
Science has solved a large number of social, medical and technical problems. In doing so, many of the low hanging fruit have been addressed leaving more difficult problems. This talk discusses some of the problems that society faces and explores how well the research system is aligned to address them. It highlights the problem of lock-in and entrenchment and how the ways we think about research can constrain its ability to produce solutions to important problems.
Following the process-based absorptive capacity definition, this article identifies technology and market capacity as two critical competencies influencing absorptive capacity. Data from a multi-informant survey conducted in 426 industrial firms from 4 sectors with different levels of technology show that market and technology capabilities act as moderator variables in the relationship between exploratory and transformative learning, with a triple interaction effect.
LUISS Guido Carli University, Copenhagen Business School
We combine structural and psychological perspectives on creativity in organizations. Employees are expected to be more likely to be creative if they occupy a brokerage position that provides them with access to non-redundant information. However, we draw on bounded rationality arguments and propose that being exposed to diverse information also carries cognitive costs.
Innovation networks today are widely considered as a promising tool for the organization of industrial R&D bringing together heterogeneous actors and their heterogeneous knowledge bases. For the analysis of the architecture and the dynamics of innovation networks it becomes necessary to explicitly focus on knowledge generation and diffusion processes in the networks - the recourse to accumulated R&D capital which characterizes models in a neoclassical fashion is not sufficient.
Despite the emergence and fast expansion of Living Lab (LL) around the world, little research has been conducted on the concept of LL from the perspective of both technological and social innovation and network governance. This paper critically reviews literature on the LL concept and other ‘innovation labs’ involving cross-border collaboration between private, public, and third sectors.
Chair of Science and Innovation Studies at Leiden University
A university-industry co-publication (UIC) is a co-authored research publication by academic authors and R&D-staff at business companies. These joint publications represent successful research cooperation, but also reflect research-related interactions and knowledge transfer from academia to business sector partners. An estimated 30,000 to 50,000 UICs are produced annually in the open scientific literature. This is a rich source of objective empirical information on many structural characteristics of these cross-sectoral collaborative relationships.
We examine the social underpinnings of intergroup effectiveness—the effectiveness with which pairs of teams perform on joint tasks. In adopting a relational social network perspective, we propose that strong ties within and across team boundaries assume center-stage in facilitating the collaborative performance of resource-interdependent teams.
The promotion and implementation of appropriate actions for entrepreneurship contribution to economic and social development in Latin America seeking a positive result requires an understanding of entrepreneurship as a broad concept. This leads to a conceptualization of the term that goes beyond the mere creation of companies, with emphasis on developing entrepreneurial skills that contribute to social mobility and the generation of entrepreneurial organizations.
Grassroots innovation movements are salient once again, although networks of activist-innovators go back to interest in appropriate technology in the 1970s and earlier. Common to these movements is a vision for innovation processes more inclusive towards local communities in terms of knowledge, processes and outcomes. After introducing some examples, this presentation considers different perspectives on grassroots innovation movements: grassroots ingenuity; grassroots empowerment; and structural critique.
We propose the concept of pro-social research as reflecting the adoption of attitudes and conducts that place social relevance as a critical goal of research. We argue that pro-social conducts represent a behavioural antecedent of the actual engagement of scientists in knowledge transfer activities. We investigate the impact that different cognitive aspects have on the development of pro-social research behaviour. In particular, we examine if certain types of research skills (i.e.
The financial crisis has important implications for national R&D systems, with impacts at all levels of research funding, performance and governance. Through an incisive view of the recent history of the Greek R&D system, as reconstructed through available statistics and qualitative stories, the seminar will highlight the impacts of the crisis and will discuss the opportunities and constraints posed by the financial crisis to the reform of national R&D systems in the European context.
Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam
Non-linearities in systems of innovations can be explained in terms of composing sub-dynamics. University-industry-government relations, for example, can be analyzed in terms of institutional networks among agents or functional synergies among scientific novelty production, economic wealth generation, and normative control as communication systems. One can raise the question to what extent “systemness” can be retained from these interacting dynamics at regional or national levels.
Las decisiones sobre gestión medioambiental son la causa de grandes debates y profundos desacuerdos. La fuente subyacente de desacuerdos está en la naturaleza multi-perspectiva de la mayoría de problemas medioambientales. Las decisiones sobre gestión medioambiental tiene lugar a muchos niveles (vecinos, ciudad, estado,…) e implica a un número de actores involucrados (tales como agricultores, propietarios de tierras, empresarios, planificadores urbanos, …) que tienen diferentes intereses creados respecto a la decisión final.
The present paper seeks to elaborate an empirical analysis of the knowledge base of industrial sectors in the United States (US). Our broad objective is to distinguish sectors by looking at their repertoires of skills – that is, ability or proficiency in using and carrying out a set of tasks. In particular we set out to address these two questions:
Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS), University of Twente, the Netherlands
How does research create societal value? Although it seems intuitive that investing in science will drive technological and hence economic development, evidence of the efficacy of those investments is far more ambivalent about the causal link between academic research and social value creation. This presentation seeks to problematize the current innovation policy debate as missing important conceptual nuances about how valorisation processes could potentially function.
El objetivo del seminario es mostrar el estado actual del trabajo de investigación cuyo objetivo es: “ayudar a resolver el problema que se le plantea a los gestores de las OTRIS de los centros públicos de investigación cuando tienen que negociar con empresas privadas la licencia de una patente generada por investigadores de los centros públicos”.
Triple Helix Research Group, H-STAR Institute, Stanford University
This presentation introduces the concept of Triple Helix systems as an analytical construct that systematizes the key features of university-industry-government (Triple Helix) interactions into an ‘innovation system’ format defined according to systems theory as a set of components, relationships and functions.
Centre for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS), University of Twente
The scope of opportunities for researchers to change their lines of research is crucial for the performance of science systems. These changes themselves vary in terms of their impact on the field - from local changes to field-level changes (scientific innovations) and from low-cost to high-cost changes. Opportunities for changes strongly depend on formal organisations because they control many conditions of research.
Center for Technology and Society, University of Technology Berlin
Research evaluation systems – national-level evaluation procedures for the systematic periodic evaluation of university research in a country – are governance tools that have been invented three decades ago, and have been enjoying increasing popularity in higher education policy communities ever since. They can be used to legitimise the allocation of funding, to save money, or to provide universities with both the incentives and the information for improving their research.
Over thirty years ago I wrote an extended essay, The Moon and the Ghetto, concerned with the troubling question of why societies so rich and capable technologically and organizationally as to be able to land a man on the moon seemed unable to deal effectively with e.g. poverty, illiteracy, slums. I argued that, while politics was part of the reason, in many cases the problem was that our scientific knowledge and technological know-how was not sufficient to point the way to a solution. The general problem of the great unevenness of human progress has not gone away.
The determinants of R&D are an important topic of industrial economics. The classical Schumpeterian hypotheses about the influence of size and market power have been complemented with the role played by industry determinants, such as demand pull, technological opportunity and appropriability, in determining R&D investments. However, R&D has always been considered as a whole, even though research and development are different activities with different purposes, knowledge bases, people and management styles.
This paper describes the methodology, characteristics and potential use of BioPat, a dataset containing patents in the field of biofuels. The innovative methodology we use aims to solve drawbacks related to how patent data are allocated and organized in international databases. In order to create a database which includes patents strictly related to the investigated field, we propose an original method based on keywords, rather than on International Patent Classification (IPC) codes.
El incremento significativo de la ciencia hace necesaria información derivada del acto de publicar para analizar y evaluar los resultados de investigación de una forma exhaustiva y diferenciada. Esta información no necesita ser observada de forma unidimensional, por el contrario, los indicadores ciencimétricos deben ser capaces de proveer una respuesta compacta a las cuestiones que suscita la calidad de la investigación científica.
SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton [United Kingdom]
Our understanding of the performance of nascent businesses is greatly hampered by data limitations. In this research we exploit a unique dataset coming from customer records from Barclay’s Bank. The data source has several unique qualities which have been previously unavailable to academic researchers. First, it accurately identifies the month and year at which a business actually started trading, defined as the time at which the business generated its first sales. Second, all financial data are then available.
Innovation – doing new things in new ways – holds the potential for great benefits to humanity. In its current institutional configuration, however, those benefits go primarily to affluent consumers and countries, and very seldom to low-income households or communities. While inequality between countries is decreasing, measured by average incomes, inequality within countries is increasing, and the global level of inequality at household level is barely changing. Could innovation be directed to inclusive development?
OFCE-SciencePo (Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques)
This presentation is based on a paper that carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion-mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base.
Institut Francilien Recherche Innovation Société (IFRIS)
This presentation is based on a paper that tackles the conflict born out of the dual requirements of academic excellence and professional relevance that business schools have to contend with due to their dual quest for legitimacy: academic legitimacy on the one hand evaluated by peers and based on self-developed criteria of “excellence”; and professional legitimacy which is evaluated exogenously based on the relevance of the diplomas awarded to the commercial and business world.
In light of the increasing importance of social innovation, this study looks at the theoretical concepts, areas of empirical research and observable trends in the field of social innovation. This trend study starts with an overview of the current situation and the perspectives of socio-scientific innovation research that have greatly contributed to the development and spread of an enlightened socio-scientific understanding of innovation.
A variety of theoretical explanations have been forwarded to explain women’s consistent under-representation in academic scientific disciplines, and each has generated empirical evidence that support hypothesized dynamics.
SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton [United Kingdom]
The study builds on and contributes to understanding how latecomer producers can catch up with their frontier leaders in the industry of mobile handsets. While the topic 'catch-up by latecomers' is by now a familiar one in the literature, this study focuses on 'getting in the game' rather than 'getting to the top of the game', so-called transition to a frontier. Starting from scratch, two of Korean mobile handset makers, Samsung and LG Electronics, have become the second and third biggest players behind Nokia as of 2009.
We study collaborative and non-collaborative projects that are supported by government grants. First, we propose a theoretical framework to analyze optimal decisions in these projects. Second, we test our hypotheses with a unique dataset containing academic publications and research funds for all the academics at the major engineering departments in the UK. We find that the type of the project (measured by its level of appliedness) is increasing in the type of both the university and firm partners.
The present paper discusses at length different aspects related to the ex-post effect assessment of R&D and innovation (RDI) policies. The main objective is that of providing the reader with a detailed discussion of theelements needed to design suitably ex-post evaluation. It is done by providing a (comprehensive) “conceptualframework” where agents’ behaviors, factors affecting their decisions and quantitative (econometric) methods for impact evaluation are presented and discussed in depth.
The literature has pointed to different causes to explain the productivity gap between Europe and United States in the last decades. This paper tests the hypothesis that the lower European productivity performance in comparison with the US can be explained not only by a lower level of corporate R&D investment, but also by a lower capacity to translate R&D investment into productivity gains.
The objective of this seminar is to explore the connection between two quite different strands of economic thought, namely the Schumpeterian-evolutionary theory of innovation and competition and the classical-Sraffian theory of prices and distribution. The treatment of innovation is unavoidably complicated in both perspectives. Economies that experience innovation are by definition in transitional states; their industries are populations of firms distinguished by different methods of production, industries that are engaged in a process of adapting to the prospects generated by innovation.
Innovation is currently seen as a cornerstone not only for economic development but also as an intrinsic human activity that could help to face the great challenges of human kind. Differences on innovation performance across sectors and countries give a variated landscape to the industrial structure and growth rates. Given the importance of innovation in the new European 2020 Strategy, measuring progress but also monitoring what drives innovation becomes crucial for policy development.
El objetivo de la conferencia será, en primer lugar, presentar algunas conclusiones de una investigación publicada en el 2010, titulada “El papel de la innovación en un nuevo modelo económico español”. Dichas conclusiones justifican un nuevo proyecto en curso, cuyos objetivos y resultados hasta la fecha se presentarán en segundo lugar. Este proyecto pretende mejorar la capacidad de financiación de la innovación en las PYMES, a través de una herramienta que permite elaborar, de manera sistemática y auditable, información sobre sus intangibles y capital intelectual.
PharmaMar es una compañía de biotecnología líder en el descubrimiento y desarrollo de fármacos de origen marino, fundada en 1986. Su fundador nos contará su experiencia innovadora a lo largo de estos 25 años.
This paper offers some insights into scientific collaboration (SC) at the regional level by drawing upon two lines of inquiry. The first involves examining the spatial patterns of university SC across the EU-15 (all countries belonging to the European Union between 1995 and 2004).
Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
Entry into foreign markets is a key decision in the growth strategy of modern firms. This paper addresses the problem of the drivers of internationalization and studies the link between international expansion, industrial diversification and related firm characteristics. To capture salient aspects of knowledge-based competitive processes and to redress imbalances in the scholarly attention given to services and to manufacturing sectors, we focus on professional service firms (PSFs), one of the most innovative and dynamic components of advanced economies.
Objeto de estudio: Nuestro objeto de estudio es la conexión entre la movilidad internacional de los investigadores y la formación y evolución de sus redes de colaboración científica. En adelante, llamaremos a esta interrelación el fenómeno MR o la conexión MR (“M” de movilidad y “R” de redes).
Motivaciones: El estudio de la conexión MR fue motivado por la percepción de los siguientes hechos:
This presentation is based on a paper that provides empirical evidence on the relationship between indicators of competitive pressure and innovation incentives using panel data of Spanish manufacturing firms for the period 1990‐2006. Instead of using standard indicators of competition, such as market concentration measures or firms’ price costs margins, we analyze a number of indicators of competitive pressure directly related to the demand and cost conditions faced by firms. We consider the likely different incentives faced by firms to undertake prod
This presentation highlights some of the findings from projects studying how international scientific mobility affects dynamics of life science research in China and Argentina. The main focus lies on bibliometric studies of the relationship between mobility, international collaboration as well as career progression (in the case of Argentina). These studies show some of the effects of the scientific social capital which researchers build up during foreign work experience.
Head of the "Knowledge for Growth" Unit of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission
There is a large body of evidence confirming that investment in R&D leads to long-term increases of GDP and employment levels and there is a positive impact of corporate R&D on company productivity and market growth.
Los análisis de cienciometría producen información útil para la comprensión de determinadas pautas o tendencias de la actividad investigadora. La tecnología “Tech Mining” es nuestra propuesta para combinar la útil bibliometría de sobremesa con herramientas de minería de textos para extraer información de diversas bases de datos. Tech Mining permite al usuario seleccionar objetivos de análisis muy específicos para abordar cuestiones relativas a las dinámicas de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (CTI).
Our work intends to verify the impact of geographical proximity on the processes of knowledge acquisition and exploitation by high-tech start-ups, considering at the same time the role of both the social and cognitive dimensions of proximity. Our basic assumption is that proximity means a lot more than just geography.
In recent years there has been renewed interest upon the analysis of the direction of technological change and its effects on the actual efficiency of production processes after the introduction of non-neutral technological changes. The empirical evidence shows that significant changes in the distribution of revenue across production factors have been taking place in the last thirty years in the major OECD economies; specifically in many countries the share of labor has diminished while the share of capital has increased.
The presentation discusses the strength and weaknesses of the so-called linear model (LM) of innovation. It is a reaction to the habit of criticising it as over simplistic, mechanistic, or simply blatantly wrong. I argue that, while some criticisms are of course well grounded, many others are instead based on loose interpretations and unwarranted assumptions.
The analysis of clusters has attracted considerable interest over the last few decades. The articulation of clusters into complex networks and systems of innovation - generally known as regional innovation systems - has, in particular, been associated with the delivery of greater innovation and growth. However, despite the growing economic and policy relevance of clusters, little systematic research has been conducted into their association with other factors promoting innovation and economic growth.
Recent trends in the use of the Internet suggest that user-produced content (blogs, Facebook pages, YouTube, and many other forms) is engaging a growing amount of user effort and also user attention. The history of the media industries has involved important audience displacement effects -- e.g. television had major impacts on magazines by diverting audience. New media have also had more direct competitive effects -- e.g.
SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton [United Kingdom]
Over recent years, the interrelationships between technology and industrial location behaviour have come to be seen as essential features of regional development. Much research and policy-thinking has been devoted to understanding the factors explaining why particular types of technologies appear to thrive in particular localities, and how this affects local economic growth. Lessons are often drawn from observations of particularly successful ‘innovative’ regions as a means of re-modelling both industrial and regional policy.
Evolutionary and neoclassic economics are at antipodes regarding the “catching-up” of less developed territories: the former maintain that it’s variable and depends on institutions; the latter say that it’s unavoidable and territories converge. In the evolutionary tradition, Pérez and Soete (1988) state that “catching-up” is easier in the initial stage of new technologies. This presentation will analyze these different hypotheses in the fields of biotechnology and nanotechnology with data from emerging countries.
In this presentation the author will firstly define what KT can be considered to include within the university setting and then try to identify what differentiates KT from the teaching and research functions. Once accepted that KT is in itself a professional activity to be carried out by experts but with different drivers to teaching and research then a case can be made for special governance arrangements. Various models of governance and management ranging from the for-profit plc to a unit within central services of a university will be considered.
The field of science policy and innovation studies (SPIS) is now approximately 50 years old. From humble beginnings involving just a handful of researchers in late 1950s, it has grown to become a significant field of intellectual activity involving several thousand researchers. Some of its contributions have had a major impact on neighbouring social science disciplines as well as on policy or management practice.
In spite of the increasing interest at a practical level on the policies that various European countries have set off to support and develop theirs industrial clusters, the scarce knowledge about it constitutes a paradox itself, specially from a comparative point of view.
The presentation shows the main stages by which the spin-off creation process of the public research system goes through, so as to evaluate its more critical aspects. Based on the experience of the “Vivero Virtual de Empresas” (Entrepreneurial Business Innovation Centre) program of the Community of Madrid, which has been developed between 2000 and 2006, some actions aimed at improving results by the dismissal of institutional and economical obstacles will be illustrated.
The idea of “regional innovation systems” came about by combining the regional innovation policy already in existence in the UK with regional innovation networks. The systems are defined as a set of nodes in the innovation chain, including knowledge-generating firms and institutions, as well as knowledge exploiting-exploring enterprises, and a number of specialised intermediary functions such as service infrastructure, financing instruments, commercialisation and market expertise and policy support.
Canada and Spain have very different histories and cultures, but they have many remarkable similarities with respect to economic diversification and leveraging participation in a rapidly globalizing innovation system. In particular, both countries have strongly regionalized political systems and both have substantial foreign investment in key manufacturing industries, clustered in specific regions. Likewise, both countries depend heavily upon unhindered access to extremely large neighbouring markets – the EU for Spain and the US for Canada.
Electronic networks of practice are increasingly important mechanisms to support knowledge sharing inside organizations. Despite the widespread adoption of these tools, little is known about the factors that influence the formation of ties between individuals in these networks. Drawing on social network theory, this paper seeks to extend understanding of how knowledge shapes the formation of ties between individuals in networks.
École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, France
Philippe Laredo will present his work about university-industry collaboration, from the viewpoint of universities. In the first part of the presentation, he will present various collaboration modes, taking hold of lessons from Innovation studies. In the second part, he will explain, taking the example of the French University of Nantes, the four main configurations of university – industy collaborations.