Recent debates around academic research’s societal contribution have emerged in response to demands for a new “social contract” for science, in particular demanding an increase of benefits for society (Martin, 2003; Sarewitz, 2016). Academy has focused on better understanding the conditions under which researchers engage with society and produce relevant knowledge that can be eventually transferred and applied outside academia (Amara et al., 2018; Perkmann, et al., 2013).
Entrepreneurship at universities involves a number of different means to carry out knowledge transfer towards industry and society. This means require the design and implementation of adequate technology transfer policies and incentives systems. If these policies are to be successful, its design has to take into account local contextual factors. We focus on technology transfer and academic spin-off in the context of Spanish universities. While Spanish university system is rather successful in scientific production, technology transfer to industry manifests room for improvement.