citations

Acceso al conocimiento público universitario en España: patrones geográficos - Access to universities’ public knowledge in Spain: geographical patterns

Resumen - Las referencias bibliográficas contenidas en los documentos de patente son una fuente de información sobre el acceso al conocimiento público con que se justifica o ataca la novedad de la invención. En vez de la distinción habitual entre referencias por tipo de literatura citada, se aborda otra más original, por tipo de institución citada, y se pone el acento en las universidades. El acceso al conocimiento público universitario en España comparte tendencias europeas: está altamente internacionalizado y se accede sobre todo a universidades estadounidenses.

Examiner amendments to applications to the european patent office: Procedures, knowledge bases and country specificities

The geography of knowledge flows has shown that the probability of a patent applicant rather than the examiner originating a citation depends on differences between citing and cited countries. How the characteristics of the citing country affect that probability has received less attention. Using European Patent Office (EPO) data of over 3,500,000 citations (1997-2007), we find that the probability of applicant citation is higher as national economic and scientific strengths increase, if applicants and examiners come from the same country and if the country belongs to EPO.

Knowledge Flows and Public-Private Cooperation across National Contexts

This paper investigates the influence of country-specific factors on the degree of reliance on public knowledge among innovators. Using backward citations as our dependent variable we find that national characteristics indicative of the quality of the innovation system generally have a positive effect on knowledge flows. A national bias towards applied research and development (R&D) has a negative impact, but this is moderated by individual public-private cooperation.
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