Policy Studies Institute, University of Westminster,London
The seminar addresses the implications of the European innovation policy turn toward societal challenges such as climate change. The new challenge-led approach reframes the policy agenda compared to the traditional technology-driven model. It is more attuned to systemic rather than singular innovation, and offers a broader definition of innovation which highlights social, organisational, and business model novelty. It is argued that this offers a richer and realistic perspective for the radical pervasive changes needed for the transition to a low carbon soc
The study integrates economic geography literature with the strategic management strand, providing a cross-fertilization framework in order to explore the relationship between agglomerations and innovation. Competitors’ agglomerations may create benefits in forms of externalities which render extra sources of external (to the firm) knowledge. When such externalities exist, then who gains from whom? Despite an important body of research on this topic, the evidence is inconclusive and mostly based on few particular industries.
Science has solved a large number of social, medical and technical problems. In doing so, many of the low hanging fruit have been addressed leaving more difficult problems. This talk discusses some of the problems that society faces and explores how well the research system is aligned to address them. It highlights the problem of lock-in and entrenchment and how the ways we think about research can constrain its ability to produce solutions to important problems.
Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam
Non-linearities in systems of innovations can be explained in terms of composing sub-dynamics. University-industry-government relations, for example, can be analyzed in terms of institutional networks among agents or functional synergies among scientific novelty production, economic wealth generation, and normative control as communication systems. One can raise the question to what extent “systemness” can be retained from these interacting dynamics at regional or national levels.
Over thirty years ago I wrote an extended essay, The Moon and the Ghetto, concerned with the troubling question of why societies so rich and capable technologically and organizationally as to be able to land a man on the moon seemed unable to deal effectively with e.g. poverty, illiteracy, slums. I argued that, while politics was part of the reason, in many cases the problem was that our scientific knowledge and technological know-how was not sufficient to point the way to a solution.
Innovation – doing new things in new ways – holds the potential for great benefits to humanity. In its current institutional configuration, however, those benefits go primarily to affluent consumers and countries, and very seldom to low-income households or communities. While inequality between countries is decreasing, measured by average incomes, inequality within countries is increasing, and the global level of inequality at household level is barely changing. Could innovation be directed to inclusive development?
Institut Francilien Recherche Innovation Société (IFRIS)
This presentation is based on a paper that tackles the conflict born out of the dual requirements of academic excellence and professional relevance that business schools have to contend with due to their dual quest for legitimacy: academic legitimacy on the one hand evaluated by peers and based on self-developed criteria of “excellence”; and professional legitimacy which is evaluated exogenously based on the relevance of the diplomas awarded to the commercial and business world.
In light of the increasing importance of social innovation, this study looks at the theoretical concepts, areas of empirical research and observable trends in the field of social innovation. This trend study starts with an overview of the current situation and the perspectives of socio-scientific innovation research that have greatly contributed to the development and spread of an enlightened socio-scientific understanding of innovation.
A variety of theoretical explanations have been forwarded to explain women’s consistent under-representation in academic scientific disciplines, and each has generated empirical evidence that support hypothesized dynamics.
We study collaborative and non-collaborative projects that are supported by government grants. First, we propose a theoretical framework to analyze optimal decisions in these projects. Second, we test our hypotheses with a unique dataset containing academic publications and research funds for all the academics at the major engineering departments in the UK. We find that the type of the project (measured by its level of appliedness) is increasing in the type of both the university and firm partners.
The present paper discusses at length different aspects related to the ex-post effect assessment of R&D and innovation (RDI) policies. The main objective is that of providing the reader with a detailed discussion of theelements needed to design suitably ex-post evaluation. It is done by providing a (comprehensive) “conceptualframework” where agents’ behaviors, factors affecting their decisions and quantitative (econometric) methods for impact evaluation are presented and discussed in depth.
The literature has pointed to different causes to explain the productivity gap between Europe and United States in the last decades. This paper tests the hypothesis that the lower European productivity performance in comparison with the US can be explained not only by a lower level of corporate R&D investment, but also by a lower capacity to translate R&D investment into productivity gains.
The objective of this seminar is to explore the connection between two quite different strands of economic thought, namely the Schumpeterian-evolutionary theory of innovation and competition and the classical-Sraffian theory of prices and distribution. The treatment of innovation is unavoidably complicated in both perspectives. Economies that experience innovation are by definition in transitional states; their industries are populations of firms distinguished by different methods of production, industries that are engaged in a process of adapting to the prospects generated by innovation.
El objetivo de la conferencia será, en primer lugar, presentar algunas conclusiones de una investigación publicada en el 2010, titulada “El papel de la innovación en un nuevo modelo económico español”. Dichas conclusiones justifican un nuevo proyecto en curso, cuyos objetivos y resultados hasta la fecha se presentarán en segundo lugar. Este proyecto pretende mejorar la capacidad de financiación de la innovación en las PYMES, a través de una herramienta que permite elaborar, de manera sistemática y auditable, información sobre sus intangibles y capital intelectual.
PharmaMar es una compañía de biotecnología líder en el descubrimiento y desarrollo de fármacos de origen marino, fundada en 1986. Su fundador nos contará su experiencia innovadora a lo largo de estos 25 años.
This paper offers some insights into scientific collaboration (SC) at the regional level by drawing upon two lines of inquiry. The first involves examining the spatial patterns of university SC across the EU-15 (all countries belonging to the European Union between 1995 and 2004).
Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
Entry into foreign markets is a key decision in the growth strategy of modern firms. This paper addresses the problem of the drivers of internationalization and studies the link between international expansion, industrial diversification and related firm characteristics. To capture salient aspects of knowledge-based competitive processes and to redress imbalances in the scholarly attention given to services and to manufacturing sectors, we focus on professional service firms (PSFs), one of the most innovative and dynamic components of advanced economies.
Head of the "Knowledge for Growth" Unit of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission
There is a large body of evidence confirming that investment in R&D leads to long-term increases of GDP and employment levels and there is a positive impact of corporate R&D on company productivity and market growth.
Los análisis de cienciometría producen información útil para la comprensión de determinadas pautas o tendencias de la actividad investigadora. La tecnología “Tech Mining” es nuestra propuesta para combinar la útil bibliometría de sobremesa con herramientas de minería de textos para extraer información de diversas bases de datos. Tech Mining permite al usuario seleccionar objetivos de análisis muy específicos para abordar cuestiones relativas a las dinámicas de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (CTI).
Our work intends to verify the impact of geographical proximity on the processes of knowledge acquisition and exploitation by high-tech start-ups, considering at the same time the role of both the social and cognitive dimensions of proximity. Our basic assumption is that proximity means a lot more than just geography.
In recent years there has been renewed interest upon the analysis of the direction of technological change and its effects on the actual efficiency of production processes after the introduction of non-neutral technological changes. The empirical evidence shows that significant changes in the distribution of revenue across production factors have been taking place in the last thirty years in the major OECD economies; specifically in many countries the share of labor has diminished while the share of capital has increased.
The presentation discusses the strength and weaknesses of the so-called linear model (LM) of innovation. It is a reaction to the habit of criticising it as over simplistic, mechanistic, or simply blatantly wrong. I argue that, while some criticisms are of course well grounded, many others are instead based on loose interpretations and unwarranted assumptions.
The analysis of clusters has attracted considerable interest over the last few decades. The articulation of clusters into complex networks and systems of innovation - generally known as regional innovation systems - has, in particular, been associated with the delivery of greater innovation and growth. However, despite the growing economic and policy relevance of clusters, little systematic research has been conducted into their association with other factors promoting innovation and economic growth.
Recent trends in the use of the Internet suggest that user-produced content (blogs, Facebook pages, YouTube, and many other forms) is engaging a growing amount of user effort and also user attention. The history of the media industries has involved important audience displacement effects -- e.g. television had major impacts on magazines by diverting audience. New media have also had more direct competitive effects -- e.g.