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Evolutionary approaches to technological complexity tend to ignore the role of invention. In this paper, we follow the theory of invention developed by Brian Arthur to trace the emergence of complexity. The notion of structural deepening helps us to
understand the emergence of complexity ?in the form of designed and unexpected relationships between elements- during the invention process. Structural deepening describes the growth of complexity as a consequence of the ?crude? nature of the
original concept of the new technology (the base principle), which needs more design sophistication to enhance basic performance. The history of the artificial intervertebral disc -a surgical prosthesis used in the treatment of spinal pain- offers an excellent context for investigating structural deepening. We find that one factor is influential in the extent of structural deepening is the success or failure of the ?technological neighbors? of the artificial disc. This ?neighborhood effect? consists of a reduction in
complexity ?borrowed? from the technological neighbors. We call this process ?architectural stabilization?.

Name and Edition of Conference Stanford Seminar on Science, Technology and Society
Location Stanford, Estados Unidos